• Born (10 March 1451–1452) - Zaragoza, Aragón, Spain
  • Deceased (23 January 1515–1516) - Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • Buried - Capilla Real of Granada, Granada, Andalusia, Spain
  • King of Sicily, King of Aragón, King of Spain, King of Castile, Sicily, Naples, Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre, Count of Barcelona

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On the side of John King of Aragon 1397-
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Occupation: King of Spain(Source: Wikipedia (Location: www.wikipedia.com;))

Occupation: King of Castile, Sicily, Naples, Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre(Source: Wikipedia (Location: www.wikipedia.com;))

Occupation: Count of Barcelona(Source: Wikipedia (Location: www.wikipedia.com;))
[Michael R Neuman.ftw]

Ferdinand II of Aragon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ferdinand II the Catholic (Spanish: Fernando de Aragó n "el Cató lico",Catalan: Ferran d'Aragó "el Catò lic") (March 10, 1452 ? June 23, 1516)was king of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples, Valencia, Sardinia andNavarre and Count of Barcelona.

Ferdinand, the son of John II of Aragon by his second wife, theAragonese noblewoman Juana Enriquez, was made King of Sicily by hisfather in 1468 in preparation for his marriage to Infanta Isabella,the half-sister and heiress of Henry IV of Castile. He marriedIsabella on October 19, 1469 in Ocañ a and became Ferdinand V ofCastile when Isabella succeeded her brother as Queen of Castile in1474. The two young monarchs had initially to fight a civil waragainst Joan, princess of Castile aka Juana la Beltraneja, thepurported daughter of Henry IV, but were ultimately successful. WhenFerdinand succeeded his father as King of Aragon in 1479, the Crown ofCastile and the various territories of the Crown of Aragon were unitedin a personal union creating for the first time since the 8th centurya single political unit which might be called Spain, although thevarious territories were not properly administered as a single unituntil the 18th century.

The first decades of Ferdinand and Isabella's joint rule were taken upwith the conquest of the Kingdom of Granada, the last Muslim enclavein the Iberian peninsula, which was completed by 1492. In that sameyear, the Jews were expelled from both Castile and Aragon, andChristopher Columbus was sent by the couple on his expedition whichwould ultimately discover the New World. By the Treaty of Tordesillasof 1494, the extra-European world was split between the crowns ofPortugal and Castile by a north-south line through the Atlantic Ocean.

The latter part of Ferdinand's life was largely taken up with disputesover control of Italy with successive Kings of France, the so-calledItalian Wars. In 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy andexpelled Ferdinand's cousin, Alfonso II, from the throne of Naples.Ferdinand allied with various Italian princes and with EmperorMaximilian I, to expel the French by 1496 and install Alfonso's son,Ferdinand, on the Neapolitan throne. In 1501, following the death ofFerdinand of Naples and his succession by his uncle Frederick,Ferdinand of Aragon signed an agreement with Charles VIII's successor,Louis XII, who had just successfully asserted his claims to the Duchyof Milan, to partition Naples between them, with Campania and theAbruzzi, including Naples itself, going to the French and Ferdinandtaking Apulia and Calabria. The agreement soon fell apart, and overthe next several years, Ferdinand's great general Gonzalo Ferná ndez deCó rdoba conquered Naples from the French, having succeeded by 1504.

Ferdinand and Isabella's children included Joanna of Castile andCatherine of Aragon. Because of the power of their joint kingdoms,their daughters married with several European dynasties, setting thebases for the huge heritage of their grandson Charles V.

After Isabella died that same year and left her kingdom to herdaughter Joanna, Ferdinand served as her regent during her absence inthe Netherlands, ruled by her husband Archduke Philip. Ferdinandattempted to retain the regency permanently, but was rebuffed by theCastilian nobility and replaced with Joanna's husband, who becamePhilip I of Castile. After Philip's death in 1506, with Joannamentally unstable, and her and Philip's son Charles of Ghent only sixyears old, Ferdinand resumed the regency, ruling through FranciscoCardinal Jimenez de Cisneros, the Chancellor of the Kingdom.

In 1508, war resumed in Italy, this time against Venice, which all theother powers on the peninsula, including Louis XII, Ferdinand,Maximilian, and Pope Julius II joined together against as the Leagueof Cambrai. Although the French were victorious against Venice at theBattle of Agnadello, the League soon fell apart, as both the Pope andFerdinand became suspicious of French intentions. Instead, the HolyLeague was formed, in which now all the powers joined together againstFrance.

In November 1511 Ferdinand and his son-in-law Henry VIII of Englandsigned the Treaty of Westminster, pledging mutual aid between the twoagainst France. Earlier that year, Ferdinand had conquered thesouthern half of the Kingdom of Navarre, which was ruled by a Frenchnobleman, and annexed it to Spain. At this point Ferdinand remarriedwith the much younger Germaine of Foix (1490-1538), a grand-daughterof Queen Leonor of Navarre, to reinforce his claim to the kingdom. TheHoly League was generally successful in Italy, as well, driving theFrench from Milan, which was restored to its Sforza dukes by the peacetreaty in 1513.

Although the French were successful in reconquering Milan two yearslater, Ferdinand died in 1516, satisfied that he had made Spain themost powerful country in Europe, and that the succession of hisgrandson Charles, who would inherit not only the Spanish lands of hismaternal grandparents, but the Habsburg and Burgundian lands of hispaternal family, would make his heirs the most powerful rulers on thecontinent. Charles succeeded him in the Aragonese lands, and was alsogranted the Castilian crown jointly with his insane mother, bringingabout at long last the unification of the Spanish thrones under onehead.

Ferdinand is entombed in the Capilla Real of Granada, alongside hiswife, his daughter Joanna and her husband Philip, and his grandsonMiguel.

Some scholars argue that Ferdinand, and not the unfortunate CesareBorgia, was the true inspiration for Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince,in which he is frequently mentioned.

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