King Charles I of /England/
Scotland and Ireland

  • Born 19 November 1600 - Dunfermline Palace, Fife, Scotland
  • Baptized - Charles James Stuart
  • Deceased 30 January 1649 - Whitehall, England,aged 48 years old
  • Buried 7 February 1649 - Windsor, England

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Charles lived a withdrawn life as a boy, in the shadow of his manly, extrovert brother, seven years his senior, Henry Prince of Wales, who died to typhoid when Charles was twelve. Later he blossomed in the warmth and attention given to him by his father's favorite, Buckingham. In 1623 he went to Madrid with Buckingham, negotiating for his marriage to the daughter of Philip III of Spain, with the hope of a rich dowry. His main political aim was the restoration of Charles' sister Elizabeth and her protestant husband Frederick V (father of Prince Rupert and grandfather of King George I) as soveriegns of the Rhine Palatinate and the Kingdom of Bohemia from which they had been expelled. The mission failed, and Charles and Buckingham urged James I to declare war on Spain, a desultory hostility which did not materialize until Charles was on the throne. And then it merged into a war with France. War demanded finance, which the Commons would not readily grant. King Charles prosecuted the war by means of arbitrary taxes and the imposition of martial law at home. Since the Commons had been reluctant in the first Parliament of the reign to make long-term subsidies, when Charles called his second Parliament he excluded active leaders of the opposition. The third Parliament passed the "Petition of Right" which declared that arbitrary imprisonment, taxation without consent of Parliament, and the application of martial law to civilians, was illegal, together with Charles's innovations in religion. In a furthur session, while members held the Speaker down in his chair, the Commons passed resolutions declaring that those who either levied or paid taxes, or made religious innovations, without the authority of Parliament were enemies of the State. Charles immediately dissolved Parliament, imprisoned the leaders of the Commons, and governed for eleven years as a dictator. The conditions for revolt steadily matured, in the two crucial spheres of resistance to arbitrary taxation and the introduction by Archbishop Laud of a new liturgy. This saw the England (and Scottish) Churches as an organism within the Catholic Church, but more consistantly faithful to first Catholic principles than any other rule - a theory which axiomatically demanded the demolition of Puritan doctrine. Scotland understandably reacted most forcibly. In 1639 the Scottish Parliament abolished episcopacy, and established an army based in northern England. Charles was forced to call a Parliament, which impeached Archbishop Laud and the king's two able administrators Strafford and Finch. It then abolished the courts of Star Chamber and High Commission, through which Charles had imposed the sanctions of his dictatorship, and perpetuated its own life irrespective of the unsupported decision of the King. Charles was defeated in a final confrontation, the intended arrest of the Five Members, and had no alternative but a trial of arms. His adversary in charge of the Parliamentary army, was the iron-willed Oliver Cromwell. The English Parliament made a treaty of unity of aim with the Scots Parliament, and a massive Scots force was at the disposal of the left-wing movement. The ensuing Civil War tore the country apart, and sometimes drove Cromwell to cruel measures. However his personal policy in religious matters was one of tolerence. It was to the Scottish army that, after three years of cumulative defeat, Charles surrendered in 1646. When, in the sincerity of his belief, Charles refused to approve Presbyterianism as the state religion of Scotland, the Scottish leaders handed the King over to the English Parliamentary commanders, their decision being eased by the passing of 400,000 Pounds which they claimed as back pay. Two years on intrigue and negotiations followed. Charles was inept at the ploy of political chaffering and dissembling at which his father had excelled - but his honor kept him intransigent on any concession which touched his religious conscience or the prerogative of the Divine Right of the Lord's Appointed in which he maintained his faith. These two aspects of his character explain the Church's conception of him as a man of honor, and Cromwell's vision of him as a man of blood. The inevitable result was the fall of the axe outside the banqueting hall of Whitehall Palace on Charles' luckless head.Charles I of England
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Charles I
King of England, Scotland and Ireland (more...)
Portrait by Antoon van Dyck, 1636
Portrait by Antoon van Dyck, 1636
Reign 27 March 1625 30 January 1649
(23 years)
Coronation 2 February 1626
Predecessor James VI and I
Successor Charles II de jure
Oliver Cromwell, de facto (as leader of the Commonwealth of England)
Consort Henrietta Maria of France
Issue
Charles II
Mary, Princess Royal
James II and VII
Elizabeth of England
Anne of England
Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Henrietta Anne of England
Detail
Titles and styles
HM The King
The Prince of Wales
The Duke of York
The Duke of Albany
The Prince Charles
Royal house House of Stuart
Father James I of England
Mother Anne of Denmark
Born November 19, 1600(1600-11-19)
Dunfermline, Scotland
Baptised 23 December 1601

1 date of christening =23 December 1602
Dunfermline, Scotland
Died January 30, 1649 (aged 48)
Whitehall, England
Burial 7 February 1649
Windsor, England

Charles I (19 November 1600 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution.[1] Charles famously engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England. He was an advocate of the Divine Right of Kings,[2] and many citizens of England feared that he was attempting to gain absolute power. Many of his actions, particularly the levying of taxes without Parliament's consent, caused widespread opposition.[3]

Religious conflicts permeated Charles's reign. He married a Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria of France, over the objections of Parliament and public opinion.[4][5] He further allied himself with controversial religious figures, including the ecclesiastic Richard Montagu and William Laud, whom Charles appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Many of Charles's subjects felt this brought the Church of England too close to Roman Catholicism. Charles's later attempts to force religious reforms upon Scotland led to the Bishops' Wars that weakened England's government and helped precipitate his downfall.

His last years were marked by the English Civil War, in which he was opposed by the forces of Parliament, which challenged his attempts to augment his own power, and by Puritans, who were hostile to his religious policies and supposed Catholic sympathies. Charles was defeated in the first Civil War (1642 - 1645), after which Parliament expected him to accept demands for a constitutional monarchy. He instead remained defiant by attempting to forge an alliance with Scotland and escaping to the Isle of Wight. This provoked a second Civil War (1648 - 1649) and a second defeat for Charles, who was subsequently captured, tried, convicted, and executed for high treason. The monarchy was then abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England, also referred to as the Cromwellian Interregnum, was declared. Charles's son, Charles II, became King after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.[6]
Contents
[hide]

  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Early reign
  • 3 Personal rule
    o 3.1 Economic problems
  • 4 Religious conflicts
  • 5 The "Short" and "Long" Parliaments
  • 6 English Civil War
  • 7 Trial
  • 8 Execution
  • 9 Legacy
  • 10 Sainthood
  • 11 Assessments
  • 12 Titles, styles, honours and arms
    o 12.1 Titles
    o 12.2 Styles
    o 12.3 Honours
    o 12.4 Arms
  • 13 Ancestry and descent
    o 13.1 Ancestry
    o 13.2 Marriage and Issue
  • 14 See also
  • 15 References
  • 16 Further reading
  • 17 External links

    [edit] Early life

    The second son of James VI, King of Scots and Anne of Denmark and Norway, Charles was born at Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on November 19, 1600.[3][7] He was an underdeveloped child who was still unable to walk or talk at the age of 3. When Elizabeth I died in March 1603 and James VI became King of England as James I, Charles was originally left in Scotland in the care of nurses and servants because it was feared that the journey would damage his fragile health.[8] He did make the journey in July 1604 and was subsequently placed under the charge of Alletta (Hogenhove) Carey, the Dutch-born wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who taught him how to walk and talk and insisted that he wear boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles. When Charles was an adult he was 5 feet 4 inches (162 cm) tall.

    Charles was not as well-regarded as his elder brother, Henry, Prince of Wales; Charles himself adored Henry and tried to emulate him. In 1603, Charles was created Duke of Albany in Scotland. Two years later, Charles was created Duke of York, as was then customary in the case of the Sovereign's second son. When his elder brother died at the age of 18 of typhoid in 1612, two weeks before Charles's 12th birthday, Charles became heir apparent and was subsequently created the Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in November 1616. His sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine in 1613 and moved to Heidelberg.

    The new Prince of Wales was greatly influenced by his father's favourite, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham.[9] The two of them travelled incognito to Spain in 1623 to reach agreement on the long-pending Spanish Match between Charles and the daughter of the Spanish King Philip III, Infanta Maria Anna of Spain. The trip ended badly, however, as the Spanish demanded that Charles convert to Roman Catholicism and remain in Spain for a year after the wedding as a sort of hostage to ensure England's compliance with all the terms of the treaty. Charles was outraged, and upon their return in October, he and Buckingham demanded that James I declare war on Spain.
    British Royalty
    House of Stuart
    Charles I
    Charles II
    James II & VII
    Henry, Duke of Gloucester
    Mary, Princess Royal
    Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans
    Princess Elizabeth

    With the encouragement of his Protestant advisers, James summoned Parliament so that he could request subsidies for a war effort. James also requested that Parliament sanction the marriage between the Prince of Wales and Princess Henrietta Maria of France, whom Charles met in Paris whilst en route to Spain. It was a good match since she was a sister of Louis XIII (their father, Henry IV, had died during her childhood). Parliament agreed to the marriage, but was extremely critical of the prior attempt to arrange a marital alliance with Spain. James was growing senile and as a result was finding it extremely difficult to control Parliamentthe same problem would later haunt Charles during his reign. During the last year of James' reign, actual power was held not by him but by Charles and the Duke of Buckingham.

    Both Charles and James were advocates of Divine Right monarchy, but James listened to the views of his subjects and favoured compromise and consensus. Charles I was shy and diffident, but also self-righteous, stubborn, opinionated, determined and confrontational. Charles believed he had no need to compromise or even explain his rules and that he was only answerable to God. He famously said: "Kings are not bound to give an account of their actions but to God alone,"[10][11] "I mean to show what I should speak in actions." Those actions were open to misinterpretation, and there were fears as early as 1626 that he was a potential tyrant.

    [edit] Early reign

    On 11 May 1625 Charles was married by proxy to Henrietta Maria of France, nine years his junior. In his first Parliament, which he opened in May, many members were opposed to his marriage to Henrietta Maria, a Roman Catholic, fearing that Charles would lift restrictions on Roman Catholics and undermine the official establishment of Protestantism. Although he stated to Parliament that he would not relax restrictions relating to recusants, he promised to do exactly that in a secret marriage treaty with Louis XIII. The couple were married in person on 13 June 1625, in Canterbury. Charles was crowned on 2 February 1626 at Westminster Abbey, but without his wife at his side due to the controversy. Charles and Henrietta had nine children, with three sons and three daughters surviving infancy.[12]
    Sir Anthony Van Dyck: Charles I painted in April 1634
    Sir Anthony Van Dyck: Charles I painted in April 1634

    Distrust of Charles's religious policies increased with his support of a controversial ecclesiastic, Richard Montagu. In a pamphlet, Montagu had argued against the teachings of John Calvin, thereby bringing himself into disrepute amongst the Puritans. After a Puritan member of the House of Commons, John Pym, attacked Montagu's pamphlet during debate, Montagu requested the king's aid in another pamphlet entitled "Appello Caesarem" (Latin "I appeal to Caesar", a reference to an appeal against Jewish persecution made by Saint Paul the Apostle).[13] Charles made the cleric one of his royal chaplains, increasing many Puritans' suspicions as to where Charles would lead the Church.

    Charles's primary concern during his early reign was foreign policy. The Thirty Years' War, originally confined to Bohemia, was spiralling out of control into a wider war between Protestants and Catholics in Europe. In 1620, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, the husband of Charles's sister Elizabeth, had lost his hereditary lands in the Palatinate to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. Having agreed to help his brother-in-law regain the Palatinate, Charles declared war on Spain, hoping to force the Catholic Spanish King Philip IV to intercede with the Emperor on Frederick's behalf.

    Parliament preferred an inexpensive naval attack on Spanish colonies in the New World, hoping that the capture of the Spanish treasure fleets could finance the war. Charles, however, preferred more aggressive (and more expensive) action on the Continent. Parliament only voted to grant a subsidy of £140,000; an insufficient sum for Charles. Moreover, the House of Commons limited its authorization for royal collection of tonnage and poundage (two varieties of customs duties) to a period of one year, although previous sovereigns since 1414 had been granted the right for life. In this manner, Parliament could keep a check on expenditures by forcing Charles to seek the renewal of the grant each year. Charles's allies in the House of Lords, led by the Duke of Buckingham, refused to pass the bill. Although no Parliamentary authority for the levy of tonnage and poundage was obtained, Charles continued to collect the duties anyway.

    The war with Spain went badly, largely due to Buckingham's incompetent leadership. Despite Parliament's protests, however, Charles refused to dismiss him, dismissing Parliament instead. He then provoked further unrest by trying to raise money for the war through a "forced loan" -- a tax levied without Parliamentary consent. Although partially successful in collecting the tax, Charles let the money dribble away in yet another military fiasco led by Buckingham. Summoned again in 1628, Parliament adopted a Petition of Right, calling upon the King to acknowledge that he could not levy taxes without Parliament's consent, impose martial law on civilians, imprison them without due process, or quarter troops in their homes. Charles assented to the petition, though he continued to claim the right to collect customs duties without authorization from Parliament. Then, on 23 August 1628, Buckingham was assassinated. Although the death of Buckingham effectively ended the war and eliminated his leadership as an issue, it did not end the conflicts between Charles and Parliament over taxation and religious matters.[14]

    [edit] Personal rule
    Sir Anthony van Dyck, Charles I's court painter, created the famous "Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles", commonly known as the "Triple Portrait". This oil painting, of around 1636, was created in order that the Italian sculptor, Bernini, could create a marble bust of Charles
    Sir Anthony van Dyck, Charles I's court painter, created the famous "Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles", commonly known as the "Triple Portrait". This oil painting, of around 1636, was created in order that the Italian sculptor, Bernini, could create a marble bust of Charles

    In January 1629, Charles opened the second session of the Parliament, which had been prorogued in June 1628, with a moderate speech on the tonnage and poundage issue. Members of the House of Commons began to voice their opposition in light of the Rolle case. Rolle was an MP whose goods were confiscated when he failed to pay tonnage and poundage. Many MPs viewed the confiscation as a breach of the Petition of Right,[15] arguing that the petition's freedom-from-arrest privilege extended to goods. When Charles ordered a parliamentary adjournment in March, members held the Speaker, John Finch, down in his chair whilst three resolutions against Charles were read aloud. The last of these resolutions declared that anyone who paid tonnage or poundage not authorised by Parliament would "be reputed a betrayer of the liberties of England, and an enemy to the same". Though the resolution was not formally passed, many members declared their approval. The fact that a number of MPs had to be detained in Parliament is relevant in understanding that there was no universal opposition towards the King. Nevertheless, the provocation was too much for Charles, who dissolved parliament the same day.[16][17] Charles resolved never again to rely on Parliament. Immediately, he made peace with France and Spain. The following eleven years, during which Charles ruled without a Parliament, have been known as both the Eleven Years Tyranny or simply as the Personal Rule. (Ruling without Parliament, though an exceptional exercise of the royal prerogative, was supported by precedent. By the middle of the 17th century, opinion had shifted, and many held the Personal Rule to be an illegitimate exercise of arbitrary, absolute power.)

    [edit] Economic problems

    Even after making peace, Charles still had to acquire funds in order to maintain his treasury. To raise revenue without reconvening Parliament, Charles first resurrected an all-but-forgotten law called the "Distraint of Knighthood," promulgated in 1279, which required anyone who earned £40 or more each year to present himself at the King's coronation to join the royal army as a knight. Relying on this outdated statute, Charles fined all individuals who had failed to attend his coronation in 1626.

    Later, Charles reintroduced an obsolete feudal tax known as ship money, which proved even more unpopular. Under statutes of Edward I and Edward III, collection of ship money had been authorized only during wars. Charles, however, sought to collect the tax during peacetime. Although the first writ levying ship money, issued in 1634, did not provoke much immediate opposition, the second and third writs, issued in 1635 and 1636, aroused strong opposition, as it was now clear that the ancient prohibition on collecting ship money during peacetime had been swept away. Many attempted to resist payment, but the royal courts declared that the tax was within the King's prerogative. The collection of ship money during peacetime was a major cause of concern among the ruling class.

    Personal Rule ended after the attempted enforcement of the Anglican and increasingly Arminian styled prayer book under Laud that precipitated a rebellion in Scotland in 1640.[18]

    [edit] Religious conflicts
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    Charles wished to move the Church of England away from Calvinism in a more traditional and sacramental direction.[19] This goal was shared by his main political adviser, Archbishop William Laud. Laud was appointed by Charles as the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633,[20][21] and started a series of unpopular reforms in an attempt to impose order and authority on the church. Laud attempted to ensure religious uniformity by dismissing non-conformist clergymen and closing Puritan organizations. This was actively hostile to the Reformist tendencies of many of his English and Scottish subjects. His policy was obnoxious to Calvinist theology, and insisted that the Church of England's liturgy be celebrated using the form prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer. Laud was also an advocate of Arminian theology, a view whose emphasis on the ability to reject salvation was viewed as heretical and virtually "Catholic" by strict Calvinists.
    William Laud
    William Laud

    To punish those who refused to accept his reforms, Laud used the two most feared and most arbitrary courts in the land, the Court of High Commission and the Court of Star Chamber. The former could compel individuals to provide self-incriminating testimony, whilst the latter could inflict any punishment whatsoever (including torture), with the sole exception of death.

    The lawlessness of the Court of Star Chamber under Charles far exceeded that under any of his predecessors. Under Charles's reign, defendants were regularly hauled before the Court without indictment, due process of the law, or right to confront witnesses, and their testimonies were routinely extracted by the Court through torture.

    The first years of the Personal Rule were marked by peace in England, to some extent due to tighter central control. Several individuals opposed Charles's taxes and Laud's policies. For example, in 1634, the ship Griffin left for America carrying religious dissidents, such as the Puritan minister Anne Hutchinson. However, the overall trend of the early Personal Rule period is one of peace. When, however, Charles attempted to impose his religious policies in Scotland he faced numerous difficulties. The King ordered the use of a new Prayer Book modelled on the English Book of Common Prayer, which, although supported by the Scottish Bishops, was resisted by many Presbyterian Scots, who saw the new Prayer Book as a vehicle for introducing Anglicanism to Scotland. When the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland abolished Episcopalian government (that is, governance of the Church by bishops) in 1638, replacing it with Presbyterian government (that is, governance by elders and deacons), Charles sought to put down what he saw as a rebellion against his authority.

    In 1639, when the First Bishops' War broke out, Charles sought to collect taxes from his subjects, who refused to yield any further. Charles's war ended in a humiliating truce in June of the same year. In the Pacification of Berwick, Charles agreed to grant his Scottish subjects civil and ecclesiastical freedoms.

    Charles's military failure in the First Bishops' War in turn caused a financial and military crisis for Charles, which caused the end of Personal Rule. Due to his financial weakness, Charles was forced to call Parliament into session by 1640 in an attempt to raise funds. While the ruling class grievances with the changes to government and finance during the Personal Rule period were a contributing factor in the Scottish Rebellion, the key issue of religion was the main reason that forced Charles to confront the ruling class in Parliament for the first time in eleven years. In essence, it was Charles's and Laud's confrontational religious modifications that ended what the Whig historians refer to as "The Eleven Years of Tyranny".

    [edit] The "Short" and "Long" Parliaments
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    Disputes regarding the interpretation of the peace treaty between Charles and the Church of Scotland led to further conflict. To subdue the Scots, Charles needed more money; therefore, he took the fateful step of recalling Parliament in April 1640. Although Charles offered to repeal ship money, and the House of Commons agreed to allow Charles to raise the funds for war, an impasse was reached when Parliament demanded the discussion of various abuses of power during the Personal Rule. As both sides refused to give ground on this matter, Parliament was dissolved in May 1640, less than a month after it assembled; thus, the Parliament became known as the "Short Parliament."
    Sir Anthony van Dyck. Equestrian portrait of Charles I with Seignior de St Antoine
    Sir Anthony van Dyck. Equestrian portrait of Charles I with Seignior de St Antoine

    In the meantime, Charles attempted to defeat the Scots, but failed miserably. The humiliating Treaty of Ripon, signed after the end of the Second Bishops' War in October 1640, required the King to pay the expenses of the Scottish army he had just fought. Charles took the unusual step of summoning the magnum concilium, the ancient council of all the Peers of the Realm, who were considered the King's hereditary counsellors. The magnum concilium had not been summoned for centuries. On the advice of the peers, Charles summoned another Parliament, which, in contrast with its predecessor, became known as the Long Parliament.

    The Long Parliament assembled in November 1640 under the leadership of John Pym, and proved just as difficult for Charles as the Short Parliament. Although the members of the House of Commons thought of themselves as conservatives defending the King, Church and Parliamentary government against innovations in religion and the tyranny of Charles's advisors, Charles viewed many of them as dangerous rebels trying to undermine his rule.

    To prevent the King from dissolving it at will, Parliament passed the Triennial Act, to which the Royal Assent was granted in February 1641. The Act required that Parliament was to be summoned at least once every three years, and that when the King failed to issue proper summons, the members could assemble on their own. In May, he assented to an even more far-reaching Act, which provided that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent. Charles was forced into one concession after another. He agreed to bills of attainder authorising the executions of Thomas Wentworth and William Laud. Ship money, fines in destraint of knighthood and forced loans were declared unlawful, and the hated Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission were abolished. Although he made several important concessions, Charles improved his own military position by securing the favour of the Scots. He finally agreed to the official establishment of Presbyterianism; in return, he was able to enlist considerable anti-parliamentary support.
    Henrietta Maria (c. 1633) by Sir Anthony van Dyck
    Henrietta Maria (c. 1633) by Sir Anthony van Dyck

    In November 1641, the House of Commons passed the Grand Remonstrance, a long list of grievances against actions by Charles' ministers that were asserted to be abuses of royal power Charles had committed since the beginning of his reign. The tension was heightened when the Irish rebelled against Protestant English rule and rumours of Charles's complicity reached Parliament. An army was required to put down the rebellion but many members of the House of Commons feared that Charles might later use it against Parliament itself. The Militia Bill was intended to wrest control of the army from the King, but Charles refused to agree to it. However, Parliament decreed The Protestation as an attempt to lessen the conflict.

    When rumours reached Charles that Parliament intended to impeach his Catholic Queen, Henrietta Maria, he took drastic action. It was possibly Henrietta who persuaded him to arrest the five members of the House of Commons who were perceived to be the most troublesome on charges of high treason, but the MPs had already slipped away by the time Charles arrived. Charles entered the House of Commons with an armed force on 4 January 1642, but found that his opponents had already escaped, with exception to Oliver Cromwell who had not fled the house of commons, but avoided arrest. He asked the Speaker, William Lenthall, where the MPs had fled, and Lenthall famously replied, "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here."[22] This move was politically disastrous for Charles. It caused acute embarrassment for the monarch and essentially triggered the total breakdown of government in England. Afterwards, Charles could no longer feel safe in London and he began travelling north to raise an army against Parliament; the Queen, at the same time, went abroad to raise money to pay for it.

    [edit] English Civil War

    Main article: English Civil War

    The English Civil War had not yet started, but both sides began to arm. Following futile negotiations, Charles raised the royal standard (an anachronistic mediæval gesture) in Nottingham on 22 August 1642. He then set up his court at Oxford, when his government controlled roughly the north and west of England, Parliament remaining in control of London and the south and east. Charles raised an army using the archaic method of the Commission of Array. The Civil War started on 26 October 1642 with the inconclusive Battle of Edgehill and continued indecisively through 1643 and 1644, until the Battle of Naseby tipped the military balance decisively in favour of Parliament. There followed a great number of defeats for the Royalists, and then the Siege of Oxford, from which Charles escaped in April 1646.[23] He put himself into the hands of the Scottish Presbyterian army at Newark, and was taken to nearby Southwell while his "hosts" decided what to do with him. The Presbyterians finally arrived at an agreement with Parliament and delivered Charles to them in 1647. He was imprisoned at Holdenby House in Northamptonshire, until cornet George Joyce took him by force to Newmarket in the name of the New Model Army. At this time, mutual suspicion had developed between the New Model Army and Parliament, and Charles was eager to exploit it.

    He was then transferred first to Oatlands and then to Hampton Court, where more involved but fruitless negotiations took place. He was persuaded that it would be in his best interests to escape perhaps abroad, perhaps to France, or perhaps to the custody of Colonel Robert Hammond, Parliamentary Governor of the Isle of Wight.[24] He decided on the last course, believing Hammond to be sympathetic, and fled on 11 November.[25] Hammond, however, was opposed to Charles, whom he confined in Carisbrooke Castle.[26]

    From Carisbrooke, Charles continued to try to bargain with the various parties, eventually coming to terms with the Scottish Presbyterians that he would allow the establishment of Presbyterianism in England as well as Scotland for a trial period. The Royalists rose in July 1648 igniting the Second Civil War, and as agreed with Charles the Scots invaded England. Most of the uprisings in England were put down by forces loyal to Parliament after little more than skirmishes, but uprisings in Kent, Essex and Cumberland, the rebellion in Wales and the Scottish invasion involved the fighting of pitched battles and prolonged sieges. But with the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Preston, the Royalists lost any chance of winning the war.

    [edit] Trial

    Main article: High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I

    A plate depicting the Trial of Charles I on January 4, 1649, from "Nalson's Record of the Trial of Charles I, 1688" in the British Museum.
    A plate depicting the Trial of Charles I on January 4, 1649, from "Nalson's Record of the Trial of Charles I, 1688" in the British Museum.

    Charles was moved to Hurst Castle at the end of 1648, and there after to Windsor Castle. In January 1649, in response to Charles's defiance of Parliament even after defeat, and his encouraging the second Civil War while in captivity, the House of Commons passed an Act of Parliament creating a court for Charles's trial. After the first Civil War, the parliamentarians accepted the premise that the King, although wrong, had been able to justify his fight, and that he would still be entitled to limited powers as King under a new constitutional settlement. It was now felt that by provoking the second Civil War even while defeated and in captivity, Charles showed himself incorrigible, dishonourable, and responsible for unjustifiable bloodshed.

    The idea of trying a king was a novel one; previous monarchs had been deposed, but had never been brought to trial as monarchs. The High Court of Justice established by the Act consisted of 135 Commissioners but only about half of that number ever sat in judgement (all firm Parliamentarians); the prosecution was led by Solicitor General John Cooke.

    His trial on charges of high treason and "other high crimes" began on 20 January 1649, but Charles refused to enter a plea, claiming that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch.[27] He believed that his own authority to rule had been given to him by God when he was crowned and anointed, and that the power wielded by those trying him was simply that which grew out of a barrel of gunpowder. In fact, when urged to enter a plea stated his objection to entering a plea: "I would know by what power I am called hither, by what lawful authority...?"[27] The court, by contrast, proposed that no man is above the law. Over a period of a week, when Charles was asked to plead three times, he refused. It was then normal practice to take a refusal to plead as [pro confess]: an admission of guilt, which meant that the prosecution could not call witnesses to its case. However, the trial did hear witnesses. Fifty-nine of the Commissioners signed Charles's death warrant, possibly at the Red Lion Inn in Stathern, Leicestershire[28] on 29 January 1649.

    When Cooke began to read the indictment, Charles I tried to stop him using the poke of his cane. The ornate silver tip of the cane fell off and Cooke refused to pick it up. After a long pause, King Charles I stooped to retrieve it. This is considered an important moment that may symbolize the divine monarch bowed before the human law.[27]

    After the ruling, he was led from St. James's Palace, where he was confined, to the Palace of Whitehall, where an execution scaffold had been erected in front of the Banqueting House.

    [edit] Execution
    This contemporary German print depicts Charles I's decapitation.
    This contemporary German print depicts Charles I's decapitation.

    Charles was beheaded on Tuesday 30 January 1649,[29][30][31]though at the time the new year did not occur until March, so his death is often recorded as occurring in the year 1648.[32] At the execution it is reputed that he wore two cotton shirts as to prevent the cold weather causing any noticeable shivers that the crowd could have mistaken for fear or weakness. He put his head on the block after saying a prayer and signalled the executioner when he was ready; he was then beheaded with one clean stroke. His last words were, "We shall go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be."[3]

    Philip Henry records that moments after the execution, a moan was heard from the assembled crowd, some of whom then dipped their handkerchiefs in his blood, thus starting the cult of the Martyr King. However no other eyewitness source, including Samuel Pepys records this. Henry's account was written during the Restoration, some 12 years after the event though Henry was 19 when the King was executed and he and his family were Royalist propaganda writers.[1]

    There is some debate over the identity of the man who beheaded the King, who was masked at the scene. It is known that the Commissioners approached Richard Brandon, the common Hangman of London, but that he refused, and contemporary sources do not generally identify him as the King's headsman. Ellis's Historical Inquiries, however, names him as the executioner, contending that he stated so before dying. It is possible he relented and agreed to undertake the commission, but there are others who have been identified. An Irishman named Gunning is widely believed to have beheaded Charles, and a plaque naming him as the executioner is on show in the Kings Head pub in Galway, Ireland. William Hewlett was convicted of regicide after the Restoration.[33] In 1661, two people identified as "Dayborne and Bickerstaffe" were arrested but then discharged. Henry Walker, a revolutionary journalist, or his brother William, were suspected but never charged. Various local legends around England name local worthies. An examination performed in 1813 at Windsor suggests that the execution was done by an experienced headsman.

    It was common practice for the head of a traitor to be held up and exhibited to the crowd with the words "Behold the head of a traitor!"; although Charles's head was exhibited, the words were not used. In an unprecedented gesture, one of the revolutionary leaders, Oliver Cromwell, allowed the King's head to be sewn back on his body so the family could pay its respects. Charles was buried in private and at night on 7 February 1649, in the Henry VIII vault inside St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle. The royal retainers Sir Thomas Herbert, Capt. Anthony Mildmay, Sir Henry Firebrace, William Levett Esq. and Abraham Dowcett (sometimes spelled Dowsett) conveyed the King's body to Windsor.[34][35] The King's son, King Charles II, later planned an elaborate royal mausoleum, but it was never built.

    Ten days after Charles's execution, a memoir purporting to be from Charles's hand appeared for sale. This book, the Eikon Basilike (Greek: the "Royal Portrait"), contained an apologia for royal policies, and proved an effective piece of royalist propaganda. William Levett, Charles's groom of the bedchamber, who had accompanied Charles on the day of his execution, was quoted in a statement swearing he had watched the King writing the Eikon Basilike.[36] John Cooke published the speech he would have delivered if Charles had entered a plea, while Parliament commissioned John Milton to write a rejoinder, the Eikonoklastes ("The Iconoclast"), but the response made little headway against the pathos of the royalist book.[1]

    Various prodigies were recorded in the contemporary popular press in relation to the execution - a beached whale at Dover died within an hour of the King; a falling star appeared that night over Whitehall; a man who had said that the King deserved to die had his eyes pecked out by crows.

    [edit] Legacy

    With the monarchy overthrown, power was assumed by a Council of State, which included Oliver Cromwell, then Lord General of the Parliamentary Army. The Long Parliament (known by then as the Rump Parliament) which had been called by Charles I in 1640 continued to exist until Cromwell forcibly disbanded it in 1653. Cromwell then became Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland; a monarch in all but name: he was even "invested" on the royal coronation chair. Upon his death in 1658, Cromwell was briefly succeeded by his son, Richard Cromwell. Richard Cromwell was an ineffective ruler, and the Long Parliament was reinstated in 1659. The Long Parliament dissolved itself in 1660, and the first elections in twenty years led to the election of a Convention Parliament which restored Charles I's eldest son to the monarchy as Charles II.

    The Colony of Carolina in North America was named for Charles I. Carolina later separated into North Carolina and South Carolina, which eventually declared independence from Great Britain during the formation of the United States. To the north in the Virginia Colony, Cape Charles, the Charles River, Charles River Shire, and Charles City Shire were named for him. Charles himself named the Charles River after himself.[37] Charles City Shire survives almost 400 years later as Charles City County, Virginia. The Virginia Colony is now the Commonwealth of Virginia (one of the four U.S. states that are called commonwealths), and retains its official nickname of "The Old Dominion" bestowed by Charles II because it had remained loyal to Charles I during the English Civil War.

    English furniture produced during the reign of Charles I is distinctive and is commonly characterised as Charles I as to period.

    [edit] Sainthood
    Charles I

    Portrait of Charles by Daniel Mytens
    Saint King Charles the Martyr
    Born 19 November 1600, Dunfermline, Scotland
    Died 30 January 1649, Whitehall, England
    Venerated in Anglican Communion
    Canonized 29 May, 1660, Canterbury
    Feast 30 January
    Patronage Society of King Charles the Martyr
    Saints Portal

    Upon the Restoration, Charles II added a commemoration of his father to be observed on 30 January, the date of the execution to the Book of Common Prayer making him the only post-reformation Saint of the Church of England. However, in the time of Queen Victoria, this feast was removed, due to popular discontent with the commemorating of a dead monarch with a major feast day of the Church. Now, 30 January is only listed as a "Lesser Festival".

    There are several Anglican and Episcopal churches dedicated to Charles I as "King and Martyr", in England, Canada, Australia and the United States.[38] The Society of King Charles the Martyr was established in 1894 by one Mrs. Greville-Negent, assisted by Fr. James Fish, rector of St Margaret Pattens, London. The objectives of the SKCM include prayer for the Church of England and the Anglican Communion, promoting a wider observance of 30 January in commemoration of Charles's "martyrdom", and the reinstatement of his feast day in the Book of Common Prayer. King Charles is regarded as a martyr by some Anglicans for his notion of "Christian Kingship", and as a "defender of the Anglican faith". He is also regarded as a martyr by some due to the unfairness of "deriving guilt from a refusal to recognize the court."[27]

    [edit] Assessments

    Archbishop William Laud described Charles as "A mild and gracious prince who knew not how to be, or how to be made, great."[39]

    Ralph Dutton says - "In spite of his intelligence and cultivation, Charles was curiously inept in his contacts with human beings. Socially, he was tactless and diffident, and his manner was not helped by his stammer and thick Scottish accent, while in public he was seldom able to make a happy impression."[40]

    [edit] Titles, styles, honours and arms

    [edit] Titles

  • 19 November 1600 27 March 1625: Prince (or Lord) Charles
  • 23 December 1600 27 March 1625: The Duke of Albany (Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross, Lord Ardmannoch)
  • 6 January 1605 27 March 1625: The Duke of York
  • 6 November 1612 27 March 1625: The Duke of Cornwall
  • 6 November 1612 27 March 1625: The Duke of Rothesay
  • 4 November 1616 27 March 1625: The Prince of Wales (Earl of Chester)
  • 27 March 1625 30 January 1649: His Majesty The King

    [edit] Styles

    The official style of Charles I was "Charles, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." (The claim to France was only nominal, and was asserted by every English King from Edward III to George III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.) The authors of his death warrant, however, did not wish to use the religious portions of his title. It only referred to him as "Charles Stuart, King of England".

    [edit] Honours
    Memorial to Charles I at Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight
    Memorial to Charles I at Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight

  • KG: Knight of the Garter, 24 April 1611 27 March 1625

    [edit] Arms

    Whilst he was King, Charles I's arms were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland).

    [edit] Ancestry and descent

    [edit] Ancestry
    King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration.
    King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration.
    Charles I's ancestors in three generations Charles I of England Father:
    James I of England Paternal Grandfather:
    Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley Paternal Great-grandfather:
    4th Earl of Lennox
    Paternal Great-grandmother:
    Margaret Douglas
    Paternal Grandmother:
    Mary I, Queen of Scots Paternal Great-grandfather:
    James V of Scotland
    Paternal Great-grandmother:
    Marie de Guise
    Mother:
    Anne of Denmark Maternal Grandfather:
    Frederick II of Denmark Maternal Great-grandfather:
    Christian III of Denmark
    Maternal Great-grandmother:
    Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
    Maternal Grandmother:
    Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Maternal Great-grandfather:
    Ulrich III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
    Maternal Great-grandmother:
    Elizabeth of Denmark

    [edit] Marriage and Issue
    Painting of Charles I's children. The future Charles II is depicted at centre, stroking the dog
    Painting of Charles I's children. The future Charles II is depicted at centre, stroking the dog

    Charles was father to a total of nine legitimate children, two of whom would eventually succeed him as king. Several other children died in childhood.[41]

    Charles is also believed to have had a daughter, prior to his marriage with Henrietta Maria. Her name was Joanna Brydges, born 1619-20, the daughter of a Miss Brydges ("a member of a younger branch of the ancient Kentish family of that name"), possibly from the line of Brydges of Chandos and Sudeley. Joanna Brydges who was provided for by the estate of Mandinam, Carmarthenshire, was brought up in secrecy at Glamorgan, Wales. She went on to become second wife to Bishop Jeremy Taylor, author of Holy Living and Holy Dying and chaplain to both Archbishop Laud and Charles I. The Bishop and his wife Joanna Brydges left for Ireland, where Jeremy Taylor became Bishop of Down, Connor and Dromore in 1660. Joanna Brydges and Jeremy Taylor had several children, including two daughters, Joanna Taylor(Harrison) and Mary Taylor (Marsh).[42][43][44]

    See also Descendants of Charles I of England.
    Name Birth Death Notes
    Charles James, Duke of Cornwall 13 March 1629 13 March 1629 Stillbirth.
    Charles II, King of England 29 May 1630 6 February 1685 Married Catherine of Braganza (1638 - 1705) in 1663. No legitimate issue. Believed to have fathered such illegitimate children as James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, who later rose against James II.
    Mary, Princess Royal 4 November 1631 24 December 1660 Married William II, Prince of Orange (1626 - 1650) in 1641. Had issue.
    James II, King of England 14 October 1633 16 September 1701 Married (1) Anne Hyde (1637 - 1671) in 1659. Had issue;
    Married (2) Mary of Modena (1658 - 1718) in 1673. Had issue.
    Elizabeth, Princess of England 29 December 1635 8 September 1650 No issue.
    Anne, Princess of England 17 March 1637 8 December 1640 Died young. No issue.
    Catherine, Princess of England 29 January 1639 29 January 1639 Stillbirth
    Henry, Duke of Gloucester 8 July 1640 18 September 1660 No issue.
    Henrietta Anne, Princess of England 16 June 1644 30 June 1670 Married Philip I, Duke of Orléans (1640 - 1701) in 1661. Had issue

    [edit] See also
    Saints Portal

  • List of regicides of Charles I
  • Society of King Charles the Martyr
  • Cultural depictions of Charles I of England
  • Whigg

    [edit] References

    1. ^ a b BBC - History - Charles I (1600 - 1649). Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    2. ^ Charles I (of England) - MSN Encarta. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    3. ^ a b c Charles I (r.1625-49). Royal.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    4. ^ Queen Henrietta Maria, 1609-69. British-civil-wars.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    5. ^ Queen Henrietta Maria, 1609-69. British-civil-wars.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    6. ^ History of the Monarchy - CHARLES I (r. 1625-49). Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    7. ^ Memorable Christians. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    8. ^ Charles I Undiscovered Scotland: The Ultimate Online Guide. Undiscovered Scotland.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.
    9. ^ Charles I (1625-49 AD). Britannia.com. Retrieved on 17 October, 2007.
    10. ^ Lecture 7: The English Civil War. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    11. ^ Timeline - English Civil War. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    12. ^ Info Please: Charle I's Early Life. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    13. ^ See Acts 25:10-12 (NRSV translation): "Paul said, 'I am appealing to the emperor's tribunal; this is where I should be tried. I have done no wrong to the Jews, as you very well know. 11Now if I am in the wrong and have committed something for which I deserve to die, I am not trying to escape death; but if there is nothing to their charges against me, no one can turn me over to them. I appeal to the emperor.' 12Then Festus, after he had conferred with his council, replied, 'You have appealed to the emperor; to the emperor you will go.'"
    14. ^ J.P. Kenyon, Stuart England, pp. 96-97, 101-05 (Harmondsworth, England, Penguin Books, 1978); Simon Schama, A History of England, Vol. II, pp. 69-74 (New York, Simon and Schuster, 2001).
    15. ^ Info Please: Charles I's Reign. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    16. ^ Kenyon, pp. [105-06 Kenyon].
    17. ^ Historic Figures: Charles I (1600 - 1649). British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 17 October, 2007.
    18. ^ Murphy, p.211-235
    19. ^ Charles I of England. Spiritus-temporis.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.
    20. ^ Archbishop William Laud, 1573-1645. British-civil-wars.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.
    21. ^ William Laud. Nndb.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.
    22. ^ Telegraph Article - "Some predecessors kept their nerve, others lost their heads".
    23. ^ Info Please: Charle I's Civil War. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    24. ^ [List of Persons Desired by His Majesty to Attend Him the Isle of Wight, The Parliamentary or Constitutional History of England, 1763].
    25. ^ "Message from the King; on His Escape from Hampton Court, that He will appear again if He can be heard, and will give Satisfaction.", Journal of the House of Lords, vol. 9, London, South East, South West, East, Midlands, North, Scotland, Wales: (History of Parliament Trust), 12 November 1647, pp. 519-522,
    26. ^ "Letter from Colonel Hammond, that he has ordered, no Persons shall come in or go outof the Isle of Wight without his Pass;and desiring the King's former Allowance may be continued to Him.", Journal of the House of Lords, vol. 9, London, South East, South West, East, Midlands, North, Scotland, Wales: (History of Parliament Trust), 18 November 1647, pp. 531-533, 27. ^ a b c d Robertson, Geoffrey (2002). "Chapter 1 The Human Rights Story", Crimes Against Humanity: The Struggle for Global Justice, 2nd ed., Penguin Books, p.5. ISBN 978-0141010144.
    28. ^ Red Lion Inn, a Pub and Bar in Stathern, Leicestershire. Search for Leicestershire Pub and Bars.
    29. ^ 1649 calendar.
    30. ^ Historic Royal Palaces - Charles I's Execution. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    31. ^ Info Please: Charles I's Execution. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    32. ^ Eye Witness History: Charles I. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    33. ^ Selections from the Trial and Execution of Col. Daniel Axtell in October 1660".
    34. ^ A Narrative by John Ashburnham of His Attendance on King Charles I, 1830.
    35. ^ Memoirs of the two last years of the Reign of King Charles I, Thomas Herbert, 1815.
    36. ^ The Life of Charles the First, the Royal Martyr, Charles Wheeler Coit, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1926.
    37. ^ Stewart, George R. [1945] (1967). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States, Sentry edition (3rd), Houghton Mifflin, p. 38.
    38. ^ SKCM: S.Charles: Cult-Churches, Memorials Dedicated to the Martyr.
    39. ^ Archbishop Laud, quoted by his chaplain Peter Heylin in Cyprianus Angelicus, 1688
    40. ^ Ralph Dutton, English Court Life, 1965
    41. ^ Britannia: Monarchs of Britain. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
    42. ^ "The Family of Pollock of Newry and Descendants".
    43. ^ "A Sketch of the Life and Times of Bishop Taylor".
    44. ^ "Jeremy Taylor, Bishop and Theologian (13 August 1667)".

    [edit] Further reading

  • Carlton, Charles (1995). Charles I: The personal monarch. Routledge, 423. ISBN 0415121418.
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1962). The Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution 16251660 (3rd Revised Edition.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 476.
  • Kishlansky, Mark A. (2005). "Charles I: A Case of Mistaken Identity" no. 189, Past and Presentpp. 4180.
  • Murphy, Derrick (2002). Britain 1558-1689. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 384. ISBN 0-00-713850-4. pp. 211-235
  • Robertson, Geoffrey (2005). The Tyrannicide Brief: The Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. Chatto & Windus, 429. ISBN 0-7011-7602-
  • Williamson, D. (1998). 'The Kings and Queens of England. London: National Portrait Gallery. ISBN 1-85514-228-7.
  • Rushworth, J. (1959). The Trial of King Charles I, pp.133-
  • Carlton, Charles (1995). Charles I: The Personal Monarch. Great Britain: Routledge, 423. ISBN 0415121418.
  • Holmes, Clive (2006). Why was Charles I Executed?. Continuum International, 244. ISBN 1852852828.
  • Abbott, Jacob (1901). Charles I.. Great Britain: Harper & brothers, 285.
  • Cust, Richard (July 21, 2007). Charles I. Longman, 512. ISBN 978-1405859035.
  • Abbott, Jacob (1900). History of King Charles the First of England. Great Britain: Henry Altemus company, 230.
  • Mackintosh, James; William Wallace, Robert Bell (1835). {{title}}. Great Britain: Longman.
  • Hill, C. (1991). The Century of Revolution, 16031714. Great Britain: Routledge, 296. ISBN 0415051789.
  • V Wedgwood, C (1955). The Great Rebellion: The King's Peace, 16371641. Colins, 510.
  • V Wedgwood, C (1958). The Great Rebellion: The King's War, 1641-1647.. Collins, 702.
  • Wedgewood, Cicely Veronica (1964). A Coffin for King Charles: The Trial and Execution of Charles I. Macmillan, 307. ISBN 978-002625500
  • Ashley, Maurice (1987). Charles I and Cromwell. Methuen, 256. ISBN 978-0413162700.
  • Reeve, L. J. (1989). Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, 325. ISBN 0521521335.

    [edit] External links
    Find more about Charles I of England on Wikipedia's sister projects:
    Dictionary definitions
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    Learning resources

  • Chronology Charles I World History Database
  • The Royal Household. (2004). "Charles I." Official Web Site of the British Monarchy
  • The Parliamentary Archives holds the original of Charles I's death warrant
  • The Society of King Charles the Martyr
  • The Society of King Charles the Martyr (United States)
  • Biography of King Charles I, 1600-1649

    Charles I of England
    House of Stuart
    Born: 19 November 1600 Died: 30 January 1649
    Regnal titles
    Preceded by
    James I and VI King of England
    King of Ireland
    27 March 1625 30 January 1649 Vacant
    English Commonwealth
    Title next held by
    Charles II
    King of Scotland
    27 March 1625 30 January 1649
    Lord of the Isles
    27 March 1625 30 January 1649
    British royalty
    Preceded by
    Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales Heir to the English, Scottish and Irish Thrones
    as heir apparent
    6 November 1612 27 March 1625 Succeeded by
    Elizabeth Stuart
    Peerage of England
    Preceded by
    Henry Frederick Prince of Wales
    1612 1625 Vacant
    Title next held by
    Charles II
    New creation Duke of York
    4th creation
    1605 1625 Merged in the Crown
    Peerage of Scotland
    Preceded by
    Henry Frederick Duke of Rothesay
    1612 1625 Vacant
    Title next held by
    Charles II
    New creation Duke of Albany
    5th creation
    1603 1625

    Charles lived a withdrawn life as a boy, in the shadow of his manly, extrovert brother, seven years his senior, Henry Prince of Wales, who died to typhoid when Charles was twelve. Later he blossomed in the warmth and attention given to him by his father's favorite, Buckingham. In 1623 he went to Madrid with Buckingham, negotiating for his marriage to the daughter of Philip III of Spain, with the hope of a rich dowry. His main political aim was the restoration of Charles' sister Elizabeth and her protestant husband Frederick V (father of Prince Rupert and grandfather of King George I) as soveriegns of the Rhine Palatinate and the Kingdom of Bohemia from which they had been expelled. The mission failed, and Charles and Buckingham urged James I to declare war on Spain, a desultory hostility which did not materialize until Charles was on the throne. And then it merged into a war with France. War demanded finance, which the Commons would not readily grant. King Charles prosecuted the war by means of arbitrary taxes and the imposition of martial law at home. Since the Commons had been reluctant in the first Parliament of the reign to make long-term subsidies, when Charles called his second Parliament he excluded active leaders of the opposition. The third Parliament passed the "Petition of Right" which declared that arbitrary imprisonment, taxation without consent of Parliament, and the application of martial law to civilians, was illegal, together with Charles's innovations in religion. In a furthur session, while members held the Speaker down in his chair, the Commons passed resolutions declaring that those who either levied or paid taxes, or made religious innovations, without the authority of Parliament were enemies of the State. Charles immediately dissolved Parliament, imprisoned the leaders of the Commons, and governed for eleven years as a dictator. The conditions for revolt steadily matured, in the two crucial spheres of resistance to arbitrary taxation and the introduction by Archbishop Laud of a new liturgy. This saw the England (and Scottish) Churches as an organism within the Catholic Church, but more consistantly faithful to first Catholic principles than any other rule - a theory which axiomatically demanded the demolition of Puritan doctrine. Scotland understandably reacted most forcibly. In 1639 the Scottish Parliament abolished episcopacy, and established an army based in northern England. Charles was forced to call a Parliament, which impeached Archbishop Laud and the king's two able administrators Strafford and Finch. It then abolished the courts of Star Chamber and High Commission, through which Charles had imposed the sanctions of his dictatorship, and perpetuated its own life irrespective of the unsupported decision of the King. Charles was defeated in a final confrontation, the intended arrest of the Five Members, and had no alternative but a trial of arms. His adversary in charge of the Parliamentary army, was the iron-willed Oliver Cromwell. The English Parliament made a treaty of unity of aim with the Scots Parliament, and a massive Scots force was at the disposal of the left-wing movement. The ensuing Civil War tore the country apart, and sometimes drove Cromwell to cruel measures. However his personal policy in religious matters was one of tolerence. It was to the Scottish army that, after three years of cumulative defeat, Charles surrendered in 1646. When, in the sincerity of his belief, Charles refused to approve Presbyterianism as the state religion of Scotland, the Scottish leaders handed the King over to the English Parliamentary commanders, their decision being eased by the passing of 400,000 Pounds which they claimed as back pay. Two years on intrigue and negotiations followed. Charles was inept at the ploy of political chaffering and dissembling at which his father had excelled - but his honor kept him intransigent on any concession which touched his religious conscience or the prerogative of the Divine Right of the Lord's Appointed in which he maintained his faith. These two aspects of his character explain the Church's conception of him as a man of honor, and Cromwell's vision of him as a man of blood. The inevitable result was the fall of the axe outside the banqueting hall of Whitehall Palace on Charles' luckless head.

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Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox 1516-1571 Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox 1515-1578 King James V Of Scotland 1512-1542 Marie Of Guise 1515-1560 King Christian III Of Denmark 1503-1559 Princess Dorothea Of Sachsen-Lauenburg 1511-1571 Duke Ulrich III Of Mecklenburg-Güstrow 1528-1603 Princess Elisabeth Of Denmark 1524-1586
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Duke Henry Stuart Of Albany 1545-1567 Queen Mary I Of Scotland 1542-1587 King Frederik II Of Denmark 1534-1588 Princess Sophie Of Mecklenburg 1557-1631
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King James I Of England 1566-1625 Princess Anna Of Denmark 1574-1619
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King Charles I Of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649