• Born about 1015 - Venice, Italy
  • Deceased

 Parents

 Spouses and children

 Siblings

 Notes

Individual Note

Peter Urseolo of Hungary
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Peter I the Venetian (Hungarian: I. (Velencei) Péter) (c. 1010-1015, Venice, Italy ?), King of Hungary (1038-1041, 1044-1046).

Contents [hide]
1 Venice and Hungary
2 His first rule
3 In exile
4 His second rule
5 Captivity and last years
6 Marriage and children
7 See also
8 Sources
9 References

[edit] Venice and Hungary
He was the son of the sister of Saint Stephen, the first king of Hungary; his father was Ottone Orseolo, the Doge of Venice.

In 1026, his father was deposed as doge by a revolt of the Venetians and he had to excape to Constantinople. Peter, however, did not followed his father to the Byzantine court but went with his mother to Hungary, where they were welcomed by his uncle King Stephen I.

On September 2, 1031, the king's only surviving son Imre was killed by a boar while hunting. Stephen I wanted to secure the position of the Christianity in his semi-converted kingdom; therefore, he was planning to name Peter as his successor. However, the elderly king's cousin, Vazul, who was suspected to be following pagan-costums, took part in a conspiracy aimed at the murder of Stephen I. But the assassination attempt failed and Vazul had is eyes gouged out and molten lead poured in his ears. His sons Levente, Andrew and Béla were exiled. After these tragical events, Peter's succession rights were confirmed.

[edit] His first rule
When Stephen I died on August 15, 1038, Peter ascended the throne without any open oposition. He wanted to follow his predecessor's policy and he firmly repressed the pagan costums; therefore he issued severe decrees against the pagans and increased the duties payable to the royal treasury. He pushed the Hungarian nobility into the background and appointed his German and Italian partisans to his council[1].

He allied himself with prince Bretislav I of Bohemia against the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry III and made several military campaigns against the neighbouring German territories.

In 1041, Peter confiscated the estates of his predecessor's widow, Queen Giselle and arrested two bishops who tried to intercede on behalf of the dowager queen. These acts resulted in a conspiracy organised by the members of the different fractions of his court against him. The conspirators killed one of his chief councillors, Budó; shortly afterwards Peter was obliged to slip away to the court of his brother-in-law, Adalbert, Margrave of Austria. After his escape, the leaders of the conspiracy proclaimed Saint Stephen's brother-in-law, Samuel Aba king.

[edit] In exile
In October, Peter visited the Emperor Henry III in Regensburg and offered to accept his supremacy in case the Emperor restored him to the Hungarian throne. The Emperor accepted the offer, but he had to deal with his internal problems before leading his army against Hungary.

[edit] His second rule
In June 1044, the imperial troops attacked Hungary and won a decisive victory over king Samuel Aba on 5 July 1044 in the Battle of Ménfo. Samuel Aba could hardly escape from the battlefield and he died soon. After his rival's death, Peter's power was restored, but he, and with him the Kingdom of Hungary, became Henry's vassal.

In the next year, the Emperor Henry III returned to Hungary and accepted Peter's homage on May 26, 1045 in Székesfehérvár. Peter, however, was not able to strengthen his rule in his kingdom. Although, in 1045, he could wind up the conspiracy of some Hungarian nobles, but in the next year he lost the support of the clergy, because he exiled the Dowager Queen Giselle from Hungary. The Hungarian prelates, lead by Bishop Gerard Sagredo, called back to the country the two elder of duke Vazul's formerly expelled sons, who have been living in Kiev. In the summer of 1046, an extensive revolt of the pagan Hungarians broke out, lead by Vata and Peter had to flee to the Western region of his kingdom.

[edit] Captivity and last years
Meanwhile, the expiled dukes returned to Hungary, and they allied themselves with the pagan rebels. Peter fall into captivity near Zámoly and he was blinded by the rebels and then he was expelled from the country. A contemporary source inform us that he married the widow of Bretislav I of Bohemia in 1055.

He was buried in the Benedictine Abbey of Pécsvárad.

[edit] Marriage and children

  1. 1.: Unknown[2]

  2. 2.: Judith of Schweinfurt, a daughter of Henry of Schweinfurt and his wife, Gerberga (1010/1015 2 August 1058)

    [edit] See also
    Kings of Hungary

    [edit] Sources
    Kristó, Gyula - Makk, Ferenc: Az Árpád-ház uralkodói (IPC Könyvek, 1996)
    Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század), foszerkeszto: Kristó, Gyula, szerkesztok: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994)
    Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I. A kezdetektol 1526-ig, foszerkeszto: Benda, Kálmán (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1981)

    [edit] References
    ^ "When Peter became king, he threw the benevolence of the royal Majesty away and despised the nobility of Hungary raving with Teutonic rage; moreover, he consumed the goods of the land with arrogant eyes and insatiable heart, together with Germans who were shouting like wild animals and Italians who were twittering like swallows" (Chronica Hungarorum).
    ^ Some authors claim that her name was Tuta, who was mentioned as "Queen Tuta", the founder of the Monastery of Suben, but no sources prove that she was either Queen of Hungary or wife of King Peter I.

    Preceded by
    Stephen I King of Hungary
    10381041 Succeeded by
    Samuel Aba
    Preceded by
    Samuel Aba King of Hungary
    10441046 Succeeded by
    Andrew I

  Photos and archival records

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 Family Tree Preview

Pietro Orseolo 928-987   x x       King Géza Of Hungary 940..945-997   Sarolt Of Poland 950-997/   Duke Heinrich II *The Quarrelsome* Of Bavaria 938-995   Princess Gisela Of Burgundy /952-1006
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Pietro Orseolo 960-1008   x x   King Stephen I Of Hungary ca 975-1038   Gisella Of Bavaria 975-1033..1065
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Otto Orseolo ca 975-1032   Maria Of Hungary ca 1000-1026
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King Peter I the Venetian Of Hungary ca 1015-


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