M Louis VII 'le Jeune' de France Louis VII le Jeune

Sosa :569,738,098
(Louis VII 'le Jeune' de France roi de France)
(Louis VII 'le Jeune'de France)


  • Born in 1120
  • Baptized - Abbey Barbeaux, Melun, France -
  • Deceased 18 September 1180 - Cité -,aged 60 years old
  • Buried 19 September 1180 - Abbaye cistercienne de Notre-Dame-de-Barbeaux - Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France
  • Unknown, Roi de France

 Parents

 Spouses and children

 Siblings

(display)

 Events


 Notes

Individual Note

geni:about_me Different birth dates: 9/18/1120 or 8/29/1120
Died September 18, 1180[aged 60]
Saint-Pont, Allier
Burial Saint Denis Basilica


Louis VII, called the Younger or the Young, French: Louis le Jeune (1120 – 18 September 1180), was King of France, the son and successor of [http://www.geni.com/people/Louis-VI-Le-Gros/6000000003714562119?through=6000000005791896564 Louis VI] (hence his nickname). He ruled from 1137 until his death. He was a member of the House of Capet.


=Family=

  1. m. [http://www.geni.com/people/Ali%C3%A9nor-Eleanor-d-Aquitaine/6000000003582502504?through=6000000005791896564 Eleanor d'Aquitaine] heiress and daughter of [http://www.geni.com/people/Guillaume-le-Saint-X-Duc-d-Aquitaine-VIII-Comte-de-Poitou/6000000003523986134?through=6000000003582502504 William X d'Aquitaine] and [http://www.geni.com/people/Aenor-de-Ch%C3%A2tellerault/6000000000701127473?through=6000000003582502504 Aénor de Châtellerault]
    1. [http://www.geni.com/people/Marie-de-France/6000000000424802891?through=6000000005791896564 Marie of France]
    2. [http://www.geni.com/people/Alix-de-France/6000000001544491104?through=6000000005791896564 Alix of France]
  2. m. 1154 [http://www.geni.com/people/Constanza-de-Castilla/6000000000228549487?through=6000000005791896564 Constance of Castile], daughter of Alfonso VII of Castile, died in childbirth on 4 October 1160
    1. [http://www.geni.com/people/Marguerite-de-France/6000000001500890375?through=6000000005791896564 Marguerite of France]
    2. [http://www.geni.com/people/Alys-of-France/6000000009326991242?through=6000000005791896564 Alys of France]
  3. [http://www.geni.com/people/Ad%C3%A8le-de-Champagne/6000000000769993869?through=6000000005791896564 Adela of Champagne] 5 weeks after the death of Constance.
    1. [http://www.geni.com/people/Philippe-II-Auguste/6000000000425008069?through=6000000005791896564 Philippe II "Auguste" Capet, Roi de France]
    2. [http://www.geni.com/people/Agnes-France/6000000003210257493?through=6000000005791896564 Agnes of France]
      Louis VII was born in 1120, the second son of [http://www.geni.com/people/Louis-VI-Le-Gros/6000000003714562119?through=6000000005791896564 Louis VI of France] and [http://www.geni.com/people/Ad%C3%A9la%C3%AFde-de-Maurienne/6000000005587789441?through=6000000005791896564 Adelaide of Maurienne].

      In 1154 Louis VII married Constance of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VII of Castile. She, too, failed to give him a son and heir, bearing only two daughters, Marguerite of France, and Alys.

      Louis having produced no sons by 1157, Henry II of England began to believe that he might never do so, and that consequently the succession of France would be left in question. Determined to secure a claim for his family, he sent the Chancellor, Thomas Becket, to press for a marriage between Princess Marguerite and Henry's heir, also called Henry (later Henry the Young King). Louis, surprisingly, agreed to this proposal, and by the Treaty of Gisors (1158) betrothed the young pair, giving as a dowry the Norman Vexin and Gisors.
      Louis VII receiving clergymen, from a late medieval manuscript.


      Constance died in childbirth on 4 October 1160, and five weeks later Louis VII married Adela of Champagne. Henry II, to counterbalance the advantage this would give the King of France, had the marriage of their children (Henry "the Young King" and Marguerite) celebrated at once.


=Life=


Louis's reign was dominated by feudal struggles (in particular with the Angevin family), and saw the beginning of the long feud between France and England. It also saw the beginning of construction on Notre-Dame de Paris and the disastrous Second Crusade.

Louis VII was born in 1120, the second son of Louis VI of France and Adelaide of Maurienne. As a younger son, Louis VII had been raised to follow the ecclesiastical path. He unexpectedly became the heir to the throne of France after the accidental death of his older brother, [http://www.geni.com/people/Philippe-de-France/6000000003232579377?through=6000000005791896564 Philip], in 1131. A well-learned and exceptionally devout man, Louis VII was better suited for life as a priest than as a monarch.

In his youth, he spent much time in Saint-Denis, where he built a friendship with the Abbot Suger which was to serve him well in his early years as king.

In the same year he was crowned King of France, Louis VII was married on 22 July 1137 to [http://www.geni.com/people/Ali%C3%A9nor-Eleanor-d-Aquitaine/6000000003582502504?through=6000000005791896564 Eleanor d'Aquitaine], heiress of[http://www.geni.com/people/Guillaume-le-Saint-X-Duc-d-Aquitaine-VIII-Comte-de-Poitou/6000000003523986134?through=6000000003582502504 William X d'Aquitaine]. The pairing of the monkish Louis VII and the high-spirited Eleanor was doomed to failure; she once reportedly declared that she had thought to marry a King, only to find she'd married a monk. They had only two daughters, Marie and Alix.

In the first part of Louis VII's reign he was vigorous and jealous of his prerogatives, but after his Crusade his piety limited his ability to become an effective statesman. His accession was marked by no disturbances, save the uprisings of the burgesses of Orléans and of Poitiers, who wished to organize communes. But soon he came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II. The archbishopric of Bourges became vacant, and the King supported as candidate the chancellor Cadurc, against the Pope's nominee Pierre de la Chatre, swearing upon relics that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges. This brought the interdict upon the King's lands.

Louis VII then became involved in a war with [http://www.geni.com/people/Theobald-II-of-Blois/6000000003243439507 Theobald II of Champagne], by permitting [http://www.geni.com/people/Raoul-I-dit-le-Vaillant-ou-le-Borgne-Comte-de-Vermandois/6000000006442576107 Raoul I of Vermandois, Seneschal of France], to repudiate his wife, Theobald II's niece, and to marry [http://www.geni.com/people/Petronilla-Alix-d-Aquitaine/6000000006906655766?through=6000000006442576107 Petronilla of Aquitaine], sister of the queen of France. Champagne also sided with the Pope in the dispute over Bourges. The war lasted two years (1142–44) and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis VII was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry. More than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames. Overcome with guilt, and humiliated by ecclesiastical contempt, Louisadmitted defeat, removing his armies from Champagne and returning them to Theobald, accepting Pierre de la Chatre, and shunning Ralph and Petronilla. Desiring to atone for his sins, he then declared on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges his intention of going on a crusade. Bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay (Easter 1146).

Meanwhile in 1144, [http://www.geni.com/people/Geoffrey-Plantagenet-Count-of-Anjou/4194887957440076070 Geoffrey the Handsome, Count of Anjou], completed his conquest of Normandy. In exchange for being recognised as Duke of Normandy by Louis, Geoffrey surrendered half of the Vexin — a region considered vital to Norman security — to Louis. Considered a clever move by Louis at the time, it would later prove yet another step towards Angevin power.

[http://www.geni.com/people/Raymond-de-Poitiers/6000000010060961353 Raymond of Poitiers] welcoming Louis VII in Antioch.In June 1147 Louis VII and his queen, Eleanor, set out from Metz, Lorraine, on the overland route to Syria. Just beyond Laodicea the French army was ambushed by Turks. The French were bombarded by arrows and heavy stones, the Turks swarmed down from the mountains and the massacre began. The historian Odo of Deuil reported:


>During the fighting the King [Louis] lost his small and famous royal guard, but he remained in good heart and nimbly and courageously scaled the side of the mountain by gripping the tree roots … The enemy climbed after him, hoping to capture him, and the enemy in the distance continued to fire arrows at him. But God willed that his cuirass should protect him from the arrows, and to prevent himself from being captured he defended the crag with his bloody sword, cutting off many heads and hands.


Louis VII and his army finally reached the Holy Land in 1148. His queen Eleanor supported her uncle, [http://www.geni.com/people/Raymond-de-Poitiers/6000000010060961353?through=6000000003523986134 Raymond of Antioch], and prevailed upon Louis to help Antioch against Aleppo. But Louis VII's interest lay in Jerusalem, and so he slipped out of Antioch in secret. He united with [http://www.geni.com/people/Konrad-III-von-Hohenstaufen/6000000006906624674?through=6000000001744902183 Conrad III] of Germany and [http://www.geni.com/people/Baldwin-III/6000000001501000954 King Baldwin III of Jerusalem] to lay siege to Damascus; this ended in disaster and the project was abandoned. Louis VII decided to leave the Holy Land, despite the protests of Eleanor, who still wanted to help her doomed uncle Raymond of Antioch. Louis VII and the French army returned home in 1149.

The expedition came to a great cost to the royal treasury and military. It also precipitated a conflict with Eleanor, leading to the annulment of their marriage at the council of Beaugency (March 1152). The pretext of kinship was the basis for annulment; in fact, it owed more to the state of hostility between the two, and the decreasing odds that their marriage would produce a male heir to the throne of France. Eleanor subsequently married Henry, Count of Anjou, the future Henry II of England, in the following May, giving him the duchy of Aquitaine, three daughters, and five sons. Louis VII led an ineffective war against Henry for having married without the authorization of his suzerain; the result was a humiliation for the enemies of Henry and Eleanor, who saw their troops routed, their lands ravaged, and their property stolen. Louis reacted by coming down with a fever, and returned to the Ile de France.

At the same time the emperor [http://www.geni.com/people/Frederick-I-Barbarossa-Holy-Roman-Emperor/5020177483010087236 Frederick I] (1152–1190) in the east was making good the imperial claims on Arles. When the schism broke out, Louis VII took the part of the Pope Alexander III, the enemy of Frederick I, and after two comical failures of Frederick I to meet Louis VII at Saint Jean de Losne (on 29 August and 22 September 1162), Louis VII definitely gave himself up to the cause of Alexander III, who lived at Sens from 1163 to 1165. Alexander III gave the King, in return for his loyal support, the golden rose.

More importantly for French — and English — history would be his support for Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, whom he tried to reconcile with Henry II. Louis sided with Becket as much to damage Henry as out of piousness — yet even he grew irritated with the stubbornness of the archbishop, asking when Becket refused Henry's conciliations, "Do you wish to be more than a Saint?"

He also supported Henry's rebellious sons, and encouraged Plantagenet disunity by making Henry's sons, rather than Henry himself, the feudal overlords of the Angevin territories in France; but the rivalry amongst Henry's sons and Louis's own indecisiveness broke up the coalition (1173–1174) between them. Finally, in 1177, the Pope intervened to bring the two Kings to terms at Vitry.

Finally, nearing the end of his life, Louis' third wife bore him a son and heir, Philip II Augustus. Louis had him crowned at Reims in 1179, in the Capetian tradition (Philip would in fact be the last King so crowned). Already stricken with paralysis, King Louis VII himself was not able to be present at the ceremony. He died on September 18, 1180 at the Abbey at Saint-Pont, Allier and is interred in Saint Denis Basilica.


=Sources=



==Medieval Sourcebook==


Odo of Deuil: The Crusade of Louis VII
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/odo-deuil.html

  • 1. St. Bernard Preaches at Vezelay
  • 2. The French Army in Central Europe
  • 3. The French Army in Constantinople
  • 4. The French Army in Asia Minor

    1. St. Bernard Preaches at Vezelay

    [Adapted from Brundage] Following the call of Pope Eugnius IV for a crusade, at Christmas time 1145, the French king, Louis VII, revealed to his courtiers his designs to go to the aid of the Latins in the East. The King met, however, with considerable opposition from his advisors, who believed that the welfare of the kingdom required that the King remain at home. It was agreed, therefore, to defer any action on the project until the following Easter. In the meantime, the King sought the advice of the powerful and renowned Bernard of Clairvaux, who agreed to preach on behalf of the Crusade to the King's court during Easter time at Vezelay:

    In the year of the Incarnation of the Word one thousand one hundred forty-six, Louis, the glorious king of the Franks and duke of Aquitaine, the son of King Louis, came to Vezelay at Easter so that he might be worthy of Christ by bearing his cross after him. Louis was twenty-five years old.

    When the same pious King held his court at Bourges on the preceding Christmas, he had first revealed the secret in his heart to the bishops and barons of the kingdom, whom he had purposefully summoned for his coronation in greaternumbers than usual. The devout Bishop of Langres, had at that time preached in his capacity as a bishop about the slaughter and oppression of the Christians and the great insolence of the pagans in Rohais, known in antiquity as Edessa. He had roused many to tears by this lamentable tale and he had admonished them all that they should fight together with their king for the King of all in order to help the Christians. Zeal for the faith burned and glowed inKing Louis. He held luxury and temporal glory in contempt and set an example which was better than any sermon. The King, however, could not immediately harvest by his example what the Bishop had sown by his words. Another day wasappointed, therefore, namely Easter at Vezelay, when all were to assemble on Passion Sunday. Those who had received the heavenly inspiration were to take on the glory of the cross on the feast of the Resurrection.

    The King, meanwhile, continued to press the undertaking and sent emissaries on this matter to Pope Eugene at Rome. They were joyfully received and were sent back with gladness: they brought back a letter sweeter than any honeycomb. The letter enjoined the King to be obedient and prescribed moderation in weapons and clothing. It also contained a promise of the remission of sins for those who took the sweet yoke of Christ as well as a promise of protection for their wives and children and instructions on certain other matters which seemed useful to the holy wisdom and prudence of the Supreme Pontiff. The Pope hoped that he could be present in person so as to be the first to lay his hands on such a holy enterprise, but he could not, since he was hindered by the tyranny of the Romans." He therefore delegated this task to Bernard, the holy Abbot of Clairvaux.

    At last the day which the King hoped for arrived. The Abbot, armed with the apostolic authority and with his own sanctity was there at the time and place appointed, together with the very great multitude which had been summoned. Then the King received the insignia of the cross which the Supreme Pontiff had sent to him and so also did many of his nobles. Since there was no place in the fortress which could hold such a multitude, a wooden platform was built for the Abbot in a field outside of Vezelay, so that he could speak from a high place to the audience standing around him. Bernard mounted the platform together with the King, who wore the cross. When the heavenly instrument had, according to his custom, poured out the dew of the Divine Word, the people on all sides began to clamor and to demand crosses. When he had sowed, rather than passed out, the parcel of crosses which had been prepared, he was forcedto tear his clothing into crosses and to sow them too. He labored at this task as long as he was in the town. I shall not attempt to write about the miracles which occurred there at that time and by which it appeared that the Lord was pleased, since if I write about a few of them, it will not be believed that there were more, while if I write about many of them, it may seem that I am overlooking my subject. Finally it was decided that they would start outin a year and everyone returned home rejoicing.

    The Abbot indeed covered his robust spirit with a frail and almost moribund body. He flew everywhere to preach and in a short time the number of those who wore the cross had multiplied many fold. The King took an almost childlike joy in spreading the faith and sent ambassadors to King Roger in Apulia concerning the large army which he hoped to raise. Roger wrote back willingly on all these matters. He also sent back noblemen who pledged his Kingdom as security for the food, shipping, and all other necessities. They further promised that either Roger or his son would go along on the journey. Louis sent other messengers to the Emperor at Constantinople - I do not know his name, for it is not written in the book of life. The Emperor replied with a long and wordy scroll filled with flattery and in which he called our King his holy friend and brother and promised many things which he did not in fact carry out. But these things belong else where! Louis also asked the Hungarian and German kings for market rights and the right of passage and he received letters and messengers from them granting what be desired. Many of the dukes and counts of those areas were inspired by his example and wrote asking to take part in his expedition. Thus everything went along favorably. Meanwhile the news flew. It crossed over to England and reached the remote parts of the other islands. The people of the maritime areas prepared ships so as to accompany the King by sea.

    The first groups to depart on the Second Crusade were companies of Anglo-Norman and Flemish sailors and troops who sailed from Dartmouth on May 19, 1147, bound for Spain to take part in the Spanish phase of the Crusade. The principal objective of these Crusaders was the conquest of a number of strong positions on the western coast of the Iberian peninsula, among them the important city of Lisbon, in what is now Portugal.' Affonso I of Portugal with his army was already in the field there when the Anglo-Norman contingents landed on the beaches close by, late in June, 1147.


==Source==


Odo of Deuil, La Croisade de Louis VII, roi de France, I, ed. Henri Waquet, Documents relatifs à l;histoire des croisades, Vol 3 (Paris: Paul Guethner, 1949), 20-23, translated by James Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History, (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962)

Copyright note: Professor Brundage informed the Medieval Sourcebook that copyright was not renewed on this work. Moreover he gave permission for use of his translations.

2. The French Army in Central Europe

[Adapted from Brundage] A German army under Conrad II set out through Hungary, but met a disastrous end at the hand sof the Slejuqs in Anatolia. While the Germans were marching heedlessly toward defeat, the French army, led by King Louis VII, was following in their tracks, about a month behind. The story of their journey is related by the French King's chaplain, Odo of Deuil:

In what we have written the description of outstanding actions is given as a good example; the names of the cities are given to show the route of the journey; the description of the character of the localities is given as a guide to show what types of provisions are needed. Since there will always be pilgrims to the Holy Sepulcher, it is hoped that they will be more cautious in view of our experiences.

The rich cities of Metz, Worms, Wiirzburg, Ratisbon, and Passau, then, lie a three-day journey from one another. From the last named city it is a five-day journey to Wiener-Neustadt and from there it takes one day to reach the Hungarian border. The country in between these towns is forested and provisions must be brought from the towns, since the countryside cannot provide enough for an army. There are plenty of rivers there and also springs and meadows. When I passed through that area the mountains seemed rugged to me. Now, however, compared to Romania [i.e. Anatolia], I would call it a plain. This side of Hungary is bordered by muddy water. On the other side it is separated from Bulgaria by a clear stream. The Drave River is in the middle of Hungary. One bank of the river is steep and the other has a gentle slope, so that it is shaped like a ball. The result of this is that when even a little rain falls and is added to the water of the nearby swamps, even rather distant places are flooded. We heard that many of the Germans who preceded us were suddenly flooded out there. When we came to the place where their camp had been, we could scarcely ford it. We had only a few small boats and it was therefore necessary to make the horses swim. They found it easy to get in but hard to get out; however, with some work and God's protection they came across without losses.

All the rest of this country is covered with lakes, swamps, and springs-if springs can be made by travellers, even in the summer, by scraping the earth a little bit-except for the Danube, which follows a straight enough course andcarries the wealth of many areas by ship to the noble city of Gran. This country is such a great food-producing area that Julius Caesar's commissariat is said to have been located there. The marketing and exchange facilities there were sufficient for our needs. We crossed Hungary in fifteen days.

From there, at the entrance to Bulgaria, the fortress called the Bulgarian Belgrade presented itself; it is so called to distinguish it from the Hungarian town of the same name. One day from Belgrade, with a river between them, lies the poor little town of Branicevo. Beyond these towns the country is, so to speak, forested meadow or crop-producing woods. It is bountiful in good things which grow by themselves and it would be good for other things if it hadany farmers. It is not flat, nor is it rugged with mountains; rather it is watered by streams and very clear springs which flow between the hills, vines, and usable fields. It lacks any rivers, and between there and Constantinople we had no use for our boats. Five days from this place lies Nish, which, though small, is the first city of this section of Greece. The cities of Nish, Sofia, Philippopolis, and Adrianople are four days apart from each other andfrom the last of these it is five days to Constantinople. The countryside in between is flat. It is full of villages and forts and abounds in all kinds of good things. On the right and left there are mountains close enough to be seen. These are so long that they enclose a wide, rich, and pleasant plain. . . .

Thus far we had been at play, for we had neither suffered any damages from men's malice nor had we feared any dangers from the plots of cunning men. From the time when we entered Bulgaria and the land of the Greeks, however, both the strength and morale of the army were put to the test. In the impoverished town of Branicevo, as we were about to enter an uninhabited area, we loaded up with supplies, most of which came via the Danube from Hungary. There was such a number of boats there, brought by the Germans, that the populace's supplies of firewood and timber for building were assured for a long time. Our men took the smaller boats across the river and bought supplies from a certain Hungarian fortress which was not far away. Here we first encountered the stamina, a copper coin. We unhappily gave -or rather, lost-five denarii for one of them and a mark for twelve solidi. Thus the Greeks were tainted with perjury at the very entrance to their country. You may remember that, as has been said, their representatives had sworn, on the Emperor's behalf, that they would furnish us with a proper market and exchange. We crossed the rest of this desolate country and entered a most beautiful and wealthy land which stretches without interruption to Constantinople. Here we first began to receive injuries and to take notice of them. The other areas had sold us supplies properly and had found us peaceful. The Greeks, however, shut up their cities and fortresses and sent their merchandise down to us on ropes suspended from the walls. The supplies purveyed in this manner, however, were insufficient for our multitude. The pilgrims, therefore, secured the necessary supplies by plundering and looting, since they could not bear to suffer want in the midst of plenty.

It seemed to some that the Germans who had preceded us were at fault in this respect, since they had looted everything and we discovered that they had burned several settlements outside the walls of towns. The story must be told, although reluctantly. Outside of the walls of Philippopolis was a noble town inhabited by Latin peoples who sold a great many supplies to travellers for profit. When the Germans settled down in the taverns there, a joker was present, as bad luck would have it. Although he did not know their language, he sat down, made a sign, and got a drink. After guzzling for a long time, he took a charmed snake out of his pocket and placed it in his schooner, which he had deposited on the ground. He went on to play other joker's tricks among people of whose language and customs he was ignorant. The Germans rose up in horror, as if they had seen a monster, seized the entertainer, and tore him to pieces. They blamed everyone for the misdeeds of one man and declared that the Greeks had tried to murder them with poison. The town was aroused by the tumult in the suburb and the Duke came out beyond the walls with a group of his men to settle the disturbance. The Germans, whose eyes were bleary with wine and anger, saw, not unarmed men, but a posse. The angry Germans, therefore, rushed upon the men who had come to preserve peace in the belief that they were going to take revenge for the murder. The Germans snatched up their bows-for these are their weapons-and went out once more to turn to flight those from whom they had fled. They killed and wounded the Greeks and when all the Greeks had been expelled from the suburb, the Germans stopped. Many of the Germans were killed there, especially those who had gone into the inns, for, in order to get their money, the Greeks threw them into caves. When the Germans had plucked up their spirits and had taken up their weapons again, they returned and, in order to redress their shame and the slaughter of their men, they burned nearly everything outside of the walls.

The Germans were also unbearable to us. On one occasion some of our men wished to get away from the crowding of the multitude around the King. They therefore went on ahead and stayed near the Germans. Both they and the Germans went to market, but the Germans would not allow the Franks to buy anything until they got enough for themselves. From this arose a brawl, or rather a squabble, for when one man denounces another whom he does not understand in a loud voice, that is a squabble. The Franks struck them and the Germans struck back. The Franks then returned from the market with their supplies. The Germans, who were numerous, were scornful of the pride of a few Franks and took up arms against them. The Germans attacked them fiercely and the Franks, who were armed in a similar fashion, resisted spiritedly. God put an end to this wickedness, for night soon fell....

Thus, as the Germans went forward they disturbed everything and for this reason the Greeks fled from our peaceful Prince who followed the Germans. Nonetheless, the congregation of the churches and all the clergy came out from the cities with their icons and other Greek paraphernalia and they always received our King with due honor and with fear....


==Source==


Odo of Deuil, La Croisade de Louis VII, roi de France, II-III, ed. Henri Waquet, Documents relatifs à l;histoire des croisades, Vol 3 (Paris: Paul Guethner, 1949), 30-32, 35-37, translated by James Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History, (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962), 106-109

Copyright note: Professor Brundage informed the Medieval Sourcebook that copyright was not renewed on this work. Moreover he gave permission for use of his translations.

3. The French Army in Constantinople

[Adapted from Brundage] The French forces arrived at Constantinople on October 4, 1147. There they were both impressed by the splendor of the city and alarmed by the suspicious actions of the Greeks:

Constantinople is the glory of the Greeks. Rich in fame, richer yet in wealth, the city is triangular in shape, like a ship's sail. In Its inner angle lies Santa Sophia and the Palace of Constantine, in which there is a chapel honored for its sacred relics. The city is hemmed in on two sides by the sea: approaching the city, we had on the right the Arm of St. George and on the left a certain estuaryl6 which branches off from it and flows on for almost fourmiles. There is set what is called the Palace of Blachernae which, although it is rather low, yet, rises to eminence because of its elegance and its skillful construction. On its three sides the palace offers to its inhabitants the triple pleasure of gazing alternately on the sea, the countryside, and the town. The exterior of the palace is of almost incomparable loveliness and its interior surpasses anything that I can say about it. It is decorated throughout with gold and various colors and the floor is paved with cleverly arranged marble. Indeed, I do not know whether the subtlety of the art or the preciousness of the materials gives it the greater beauty or value. On the thirdside of the city's triangle there are fields. This side is fortified by towers and a double wall which extends for nearly two miles, from the sea to the palace. This wall is not especially strong, and the towers are not very high, but the city trusts, I think, in its large population and in its ancient peace. Within the walls there is vacant land which is cultivated with hoes and plows. Here there are all kinds of gardens which furnish vegetables for the citizens. Subterranean conduits flow into the city under the walls to furnish the citizens with an abundance of fresh water. The city is rather squalid and smelly and many places are afflicted with perpetual darkness. The rich build their houses so as to overhang the streets and leave these dark and dirty places for travellers and for the poor. There murder and robberies occur, as well as other sordid crimes which love the dark. Life in this city is lawless, since it has as many lords as it has rich men and almost as many thieves as poor men. Here the criminal feels neither fear nor shame, since crime is not punisbed by law nor does it ever fully come to light. Constantinople exceeds the average in everything-it surpasses other cities in wealth and also in vice. It has many churches which are unequal to Santa Sophia in size, though not in elegance. The churches are admirable for their beauty and equally so for their numerous venerable relics of the saints. Those who could enter them did so, some out of curiosity in order to see them, and some out of faithful devotion.

The King also was guided on a visit to the holy places by the Emperor. As they returned, the King dined with the Emperor at the latter's insistence. The banquet was as glorious as the banqueters; the handsome service, the delicious food, and the witty conversation satisfied eyes, tongue, and ears alike. Many of the King's men feared for him there, but he bad placed his trust in God and with faith and courage he feared nothing. Since he harbored no wicked designs himself, he was not quick to believe that others harbored wicked designs on him. Even though the Greeks gave no evidence of their treachery, however, I believe that they would not have shown such vigilant helpfulness if their intentions were honest. They were concealing the grievances for which they were going to take revenge after we crossed the Arm of St. George. It should not be held against them, however, that they kept the city gates closed against the commoners, since they had burned many of the Greeks' houses and olive trees, either because of a lack of wood or else because of the insolence and drunkenness of fools. The King frequently bad the ears, bands, and feet ofsome of them cut off, but he was unable to restrain their madness in this way.

4. The French Army in Asia Minor

[Adapted from Brundage] The French forces crossed the straits into Asia Minor about October 16, 1147, and then headed straightway into the hinterland of Anatolia or, as Odo calls it, Romania. Though they were more fortunate than the other forces which had preceded them into Anatolia, the French expedition's journey through the peninsula was difficult, slow, and painful. The rugged countryside, the continual harassment of the troops by the Turks, the persistent difficulties with supplies and communications, all combined to discourage the leaders and to make inroads upon the army's strength. As the French forces pushed further during the winter of 1147-1148, their despair deepened. Turkish raids took a mounting toll, while the weather impeded progress and did its own share in weakening the morale of the men. By the time the Crusaders reached Adalia, King Louis and his advisors had had their fill. Despairing of the prospect of continuing to fight their way toward Jerusalem, the King and his advisors decided to continue the rest of the way by sea. Unfortunately for these plans, however, the available Byzantine shipping was insufficient to transport the whole army and they could not wait indefinitely in Adalia for the arrival of further ships. As a result, King Louis with his household and a scattering of knights from the army were taken aboard the available ships and sailed to St. Simeon, the port city of Antioch, leaving the rest of the Crusading army to continue the journey as best it could. Many of the troops thus left behind at Adalia were killed in combat with the Turks in the vicinity of the town when they attempted to continue their journey by land. Those who managed to break through the Turkish cordon around the city were decimated by further Turkish and Arab attacks and only a handful remained alive to complete their journey to Jerusalem.:

Romania, furthermore, is a very wide land with rugged, stony mountains. It extends south to Antioch and is bounded by Turkey on the east. All of it was formerly under Greek rule, but the Turks now possess a great part of it and, after expelling the Greeks, have destroyed another part of it. In the places where the Greeks still hold fortresses, they do not pay taxes. Such are the servile conditions in which the Greeks hold the land which French strength liberated when the Franks conquered Jerusalem."' This indolent people would have lost it all, save for the fact that they have brought in soldiers of other nations to defend themselves. They are always losing, but since they possess a great deal, they do not lose everything at once. The strength of other peoples, however, is not sufficient for a people which totally lacks strength of its own. Nicomedia first made this clear to us: located among briars and brambles, its towering ruins demonstrated its ancient glory and the slackness of its present masters. In vain does a certain estuary of the sea flow from the Arm and terminate after a three-day journey at Nicomedia to better the city's facilities.

From Nicomedia three routes of various lengths and quality lead to Antioch. The road which turns to the left is the shorter of them and, if there were no obstacles along it, it could be traversed in three weeks. After twelve days,however, it reaches Konya, the Sultan's capital, which is a very noble city. Five days beyond the Turkish territory this road reaches the land of the Franks. A strong army fortified by faith and numbers would make light of this obstacle if it were not frightened by the snow-covered mountains in the winter. The road running to the right is more peaceful and better supplied than the other, but the winding seacoast which it follows delays the traveller threetimes over and its rivers and torrents in the winter are as frightful as the snow and the Turks on the other road. On the middle road the conveniences and difficulties of the other routes are tempered. It is longer but safer thanthe shorter road, shorter and safer than the long road, but poorer. The Germans who preceded us, therefore, had a disagreement. Many of them set out with the Emperor through Konya on the left hand road under sinister omens. The rest turned to the right under the Emperor's brother, a course which was unfortunate in every way. The middle road fell to our lot and so the misfortunes of the other two sides were tempered.


==Source==


Odo of Deuil, La Croisade de Louis VII, roi de France, IV, ed. Henri Waquet, Documents relatifs à l;histoire des croisades, Vol 3 (Paris: Paul Guethner, 1949), 54-55, translated by James Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History, (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962), 111-112

Copyright note: Professor Brundage informed the Medieval Sourcebook that copyright was not renewed on this work. Moreover he gave permission for use of his translations.

This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.

Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

© Paul Halsall December 1997
halsall a murray.fordham.edu


==Source==


Meade, Marion. Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Biography. 1977.

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Pai de Filipe Augusto, foi também o primeiro marido da célebre Leonor da Aquitânia. O seu reinado foi dominado por conflitos feudais, especialmente com os angevinos, e marcou o início da longa rivalidade entre a França e a Inglaterra. Também foi o período do início da construção da actual catedral de Notre-Dame de Paris e da desastrosa Segunda Cruzada.

Subida ao trono
Luís VII foi o segundo filho do rei Luís VI de França com Adelaide de Sabóia, e por isso foi educado para seguir a carreira eclesiástica. Grande parte da sua juventude foi passada em Saint-Denis, onde aprendeu a confiar e a valorizar as opiniões do abade Suger, que seria um bom conselheiro durante os primeiros anos do seu reinado.

Homem educado e excepcionalmente devoto, tornou-se inesperadamente no herdeiro do trono, para a qual tinha menos talento, com a morte acidental do seu irmão Filipe em 13 de Outubro de 1131, em consequência de uma queda de cavalo. A 25 de Outubro foi sagrado rei e coroado em Reims pelo papa Inocêncio II. Depois da morte do seu pai foi novamente coroado em Bourges, a 25 de Dezembro de 1137.

Casamento com Leonor da Aquitânia
Antes de morrer, Luís VI tinha organizado o casamento do filho com Leonor, a herdeira do ducado da Aquitânia (1122-1204), filha de Guilherme X de Poitiers e de Leonor de Châtellerault. O casamento teve lugar em Bordéus, a 25 de Julho de 1137, com vantagens para ambos os noivos.

Na conflituosa época dos nobres salteadores que assolavam o país, aterrorizando as populações e os domínios vizinhos, Leonor obteve a protecção necessária para o seu ducado. Luís quase que triplicou os domínios da coroa, uma vez que a sua noiva era senhora da Aquitânia, Gasconha, Poitou, Auvérnia, Bordéus, Agen, Saintonge, Limousin, Angoumois e Périgord - o equivalente a 19 departamentos franceses actuais.

O carácter do rei, devoto, ascético, ingénuo, rude e pouco vigoroso, não combinava com a sua forte, inteligente, refinada e sensual noiva, apesar de durante dez anos parecerem viver sem sérios conflitos. A união, da qual nasceram duas filhas, Maria Capeto e Alice Capeto, estava condenada ao fracasso. É atribuída uma declaração a Leonor: que pensava ter-se casado com um rei, mas descobrira que se casara com um monge.

Aumento da influência da coroa
Luís VII afastou a sua mãe da corte mas manteve os conselheiros do pai, dando particular importância ao abade Suger de Saint-Denis. Seguiu a política de Luís VI, continuando a tentar aumentar os domínios da coroa. No ano da sua coroação e do seu casamento, começaram os trabalhos de construção da basílica de Saint-Denis, a partir da igreja já existente no local.

Fez múltiplas concessões às comunas rurais, encorajou a reclamação das terras e favoreceu a emancipação dos servos. Obteve o apoio das cidades ao lhes outorgar forais à burguesia (Étampes, Bourges) e desenvolvendo as dos seus domínios (Reims, Sens, Compiègne, Auxerre). Apoiou por fim a eleição de bispos dedicados ao poder real.
São Bernardo de Claraval representado numa iluminura do séc. XIII

A partir de Maio de 1141, o rei entrou em conflito com o conde Teobaldo II de Champagne e o papa Inocêncio II devido à investidura do bispado de Langres, no qual desejava impor um monge da abadia de Cluny contra o candidato Bernardo de Claraval. Permitiu que Raúl I de Vermandois, senescal de França, repudiasse a sua esposa, sobrinha de Teobaldo II, para casar com Petronilha da Aquitânia, irmã da rainha de França.

Opôs-se novamente ao papa ao tentar impor o seu candidato ao assento de Bourges em 1141 contra Pierre de la Châtre, sustentado por Inocêncio, jurando pelas santas relíquias que enquanto vivesse, Pierre não entraria em Bourges. O papa acabou por excomungar Luís VII e colocar o reino sob interdicto (o equivalente à excomunhão, aplicado a um território). O candidato papal refugiou-se no condado de Champagne, que o rei invadiria em Dezembro de 1142. Em Janeirode 1143 as suas hostes incendiaram Vitry-en-Perthois, incluindo a sua igreja, na qual se tinham refugiado mais de mil habitantes da vila, que aí pereceram.

Com a culpa deste acto pesando na sua consciência, e humilhado pelo repúdio eclesiástico, Luís admitiu a derrota, removendo o seu exército de Champagne, devolvendo as terras a Teobaldo, aceitando Pierre de La Châtre e afastando-sede Raúl e Petronilha. Para resolver definitivamente a questão, o Jovem assinou o tratado de Vitry com o conde Teobaldo II no Outono de 1143, aceitando a eleição do candidato papal para levantar o interdicto do reino, e a 22 de Abril de 1144 participou da conferência de Saint-Denis para encerrar o conflito entre a Santa Sé e a França. Como parte do acordo, Luís VI aceitou, contra a vontade do abade Suger, participar da Segunda Cruzada, pregada por São Bernardo.

Ao mesmo tempo, o conde Godofredo V de Anjou concluía a conquista da Normandia. Em troca de ser reconhecido duque da Normandia pelo monarca francês, cedeu-lhe metade da Vexin - uma região vital para a segurança Normanda. Considerada uma jogada inteligente de Luís na época, esta acção acabaria por se tornar em mais um passo importante na construção do poder angevino.

Morte e legado
Luís morreu a 18 de Setembro de 1180 em Melun de caquexia acompanhada de paralisia. Foi sepultado no dia seguinte na abadia real de Saint-Port de Barbeau, que fundara próximo a Fontaine-le-Port, nas margens do rio Sena, entre Melun e Fontainebleau. Foi sucedido pelo seu filho Filipe Augusto, que já exercia o poder de facto desde 28 de Junho, quando o seu pai abandonou o poder em seu favor.

Apesar de mais educado para o clero que para o governo, Luís VII teve um papel importante na história da França:

  • Consolidou o poder real nas províncias sob a sua influência e combateu o poder feudal
  • Cercou-se de alguns conselheiros de grande qualidade e publicou ordenanções importantes para a gestão do reino
  • O reino da França enriqueceu sob o seu reinado, a agricultura transformou-se e ganhou produtividade, a população aumentou, o comércio e a indústria foram desenvolvidos, surgiu um verdadeiro renascimento intelectal e o territóriocobriu-se de castelos e fortes construídos em pedra.
  • Reforçou poderosas ligações com o clero e o papado

    Mas a Segunda Cruzada foi calamitosa e a separação de Leonor da Aquitânia foi um erro crasso, que forneceu os meios para um vassalo menor se impor, colocando a coroa da França em inferioridade territorial durante cerca de meio século. Foi necessária a acção de três grandes reis, Filipe Augusto, Luís VIII o Leão e Luís IX para reverter a situação e reduzir as consequências deste erro político.

    Tal como na Inglaterra com Henrique II, a monarquia, até a esta época itinerante, foi fixada em Paris, uma vez que a presença do rei já não era necessária por todos os seus domínios. Foi formado um embrião de administração centrale local. Os poderosos do reino, seus familiares, tornaram-se seus conselheiros e formariam o Conselho do rei, os serviços centrais da monarquia reagruparam os chefes dos serviços domésticos do palácio. Nas províncias, prebostes foram encarregados de recolher as receitas, criar contingentes militares e administrar justiça. Como o seu pai, Luís sustentou o movimento de emancipação das comunas, a cedência de privilégios às comunidades rurais e a emancipação dos servos.
    --------------------
    Louis VII (called the Younger or the Young) (French: Louis le Jeune) (1120 – 18 September 1180) was King of France, the son and successor of Louis VI (hence his nickname). He ruled from 1137 until his death. He was part of the genetic ascendancy of the House of Capet. His reign was dominated by feudal struggles (in particular with the Angevin family), and saw the beginning of the long feud between France and England. It also saw the beginning of construction on Notre-Dame de Paris, the founding of the University of Paris and the disastrous Second Crusade.

    Early Life

    Louis VII was born in 1120, the second son of Louis VI of France and Adelaide of Maurienne. As a younger son, Louis VII had been raised to follow the ecclesiastical path. He unexpectedly became the heir to the throne of France after the accidental death of his older brother, Philip, in 1131. A well-learned and exceptionally devout man, Louis VII was better suited for life as a priest than as a monarch.

    In his youth, he spent much time in Saint-Denis, where he built a friendship with the Abbot Suger which was to serve him well in his early years as king.

    Ealry Reign

    In the same year he was crowned King of France, Louis VII was married on 25 July 1137 to Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, heiress of William X of Aquitaine. The pairing of the monkish Louis VII and the high-spirited Eleanor was doomed to failure; she once reportedly declared that she had thought to marry a King, only to find she'd married a monk. They had only two daughters, Marie and Alix.

    In the first part of Louis VII's reign he was vigorous and jealous of his prerogatives, but after his Crusade his piety limited his ability to become an effective statesman. His accession was marked by no disturbances, save the uprisings of the burgesses of Orléans and of Poitiers, who wished to organize communes. But soon he came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II. The archbishopric of Bourges became vacant, and the King supported as candidate the chancellor Cadurc, against the Pope's nominee Pierre de la Chatre, swearing upon relics that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges. This brought the interdict upon the King's lands.

    Louis VII then became involved in a war with Theobald II of Champagne, by permitting Raoul I of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife, Theobald II's niece, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, sister of the queen of France. Champagne also sided with the Pope in the dispute over Bourges. The war lasted two years (1142–1144) and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis VII was personally involved in the assault andburning of the town of Vitry-le-François. More than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames. Overcome with guilt, and humiliated by ecclesiastical contempt, Louis admitted defeat, removing his armies from Champagne and returning them to Theobald, accepting Pierre de la Chatre, and shunning Ralph and Petronilla. Desiring to atone for his sins, he then declared on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges his intention of going on a crusade. Bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay (Easter 1146).

    Meanwhile in 1144, Geoffrey the Handsome, Count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy. In exchange for being recognised as Duke of Normandy by Louis, Geoffrey surrendered half of the Vexin—a region considered vital to Norman security—to Louis. Considered a clever move by Louis at the time, it would later prove yet another step towards Angevin power.

    In June 1147, in fulfillment of his vow to go on crusade, Louis VII and his queen, Eleanor, set out from Metz,

    Lorraine, on the overland route to Syria. Soon they arrived to the Kingdom of Hungary where they were welcomed by the king Géza II of Hungary, who was already waiting with the German emperor. Due to his good relationships with Louis VII, Géza II asked the French king to be his son Stephen's baptism godfather. After receiving provisions from the Hungarian king, the armies continued the march to the East. Just beyond Laodicea the French army was ambushed by Turks. The French were bombarded by arrows and heavy stones, the Turks swarmed down from the mountains and the massacre began. The historian Odo of Deuil reported:

    During the fighting the King Louis lost his small and famous royal guard, but he remained in good heart and nimbly and courageously scaled the side of the mountain by gripping the tree roots … The enemy climbed after him, hoping to capture him, and the enemy in the distance continued to fire arrows at him. But God willed that his cuirass should protect him from the arrows, and to prevent himself from being captured he defended the crag with his bloody sword, cutting off many heads and hands.

    Louis VII and his army finally reached the Holy Land in 1148. His queen Eleanor supported her uncle, Raymond of Antioch, and prevailed upon Louis to help Antioch against Aleppo. But Louis VII's interest lay in Jerusalem, and so heslipped out of Antioch in secret. He united with Conrad III of Germany and King Baldwin III of Jerusalem to lay siege to Damascus; this ended in disaster and the project was abandoned. Louis VII decided to leave the Holy Land, despite the protests of Eleanor, who still wanted to help her doomed uncle Raymond of Antioch. Louis VII and the French army returned home in 1149.

    A Shift in the Status Quo

    The expedition came to a great cost to the royal treasury and military. It also precipitated a conflict with Eleanor, leading to the annulment of their marriage at the council of Beaugency (March 1152). The pretext of kinship was the basis for annulment; in fact, it owed more to the state of hostility between the two, and the decreasing odds that their marriage would produce a male heir to the throne of France. Eleanor subsequently married Henry, Count of Anjou, the future Henry II of England, in the following May giving him the duchy of Aquitaine, three daughters, and five sons. Louis VII led an ineffective war against Henry for having married without the authorisation of his suzerain; the result was a humiliation for the enemies of Henry and Eleanor, who saw their troops routed, their lands ravaged, and their property stolen. Louis reacted by coming down with a fever, and returned to the Ile-de France.

    In 1154 Louis VII married Constance of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VII of Castile. She, too, failed to give him a son and heir, bearing only two daughters, Marguerite of France, and Alys.

    Louis having produced no sons by 1157, Henry II of England began to believe that he might never do so, and that consequently the succession of France would be left in question. Determined to secure a claim for his family, he sent the Chancellor, Thomas Becket, to press for a marriage between Princess Marguerite and Henry's heir, also called Henry (later Henry the Young King). Louis, surprisingly, agreed to this proposal, and by the Treaty of Gisors (1158) betrothed the young pair, giving as a dowry the Norman Vexin and Gisors.

    Constance died in childbirth on 4 October 1160, and five weeks later Louis VII married Adela of Champagne. Henry II, to counterbalance the advantage this would give the King of France, had the marriage of their children (Henry "the Young King" and Marguerite) celebrated at once. Louis understood the danger of the growing Angevin power; however, through indecision and lack of fiscal and military resources compared to Henry II's, he failed to oppose Angevin hegemony effectively. One of his few successes, in 1159, was his trip to Toulouse to aid Raymond V, Count of Toulouse who had been attacked by Henry II: after he entered into the city with a small escort, claiming to be visiting the Countess his sister, Henry declared that he could not attack the city whilst his liege lord was inside, and went home.

    Diplomacy

    At the same time the emperor Frederick I (1152–1190) in the east was making good the imperial claims on Arles. When the schism broke out, Louis VII took the part of the Pope Alexander III, the enemy of Frederick I, and after two comical failures of Frederick I to meet Louis VII at Saint Jean de Losne (on 29 August and 22 September 1162), Louis VII definitely gave himself up to the cause of Alexander III, who lived at Sens from 1163 to 1165. Alexander III gave the King, in return for his loyal support, the golden rose.

    More importantly for French — and English — history would be his support for Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, whom he tried to reconcile with Henry II. Louis sided with Becket as much to damage Henry as out of piousness — yet even he grew irritated with the stubbornness of the archbishop, asking when Becket refused Henry's conciliations, "Do you wish to be more than a Saint?"

    He also supported Henry's rebellious sons, and encouraged Plantagenet disunity by making Henry's sons, rather than Henry himself, the feudal overlords of the Angevin territories in France; but the rivalry amongst Henry's sons and Louis's own indecisiveness broke up the coalition (1173–1174) between them. Finally, in 1177, the Pope intervened to bring the two Kings to terms at Vitry-le-François.

    In 1165, Louis' third wife bore him a son and heir, Philip II Augustus. Louis had him crowned at Reims in 1179, in the Capetian tradition (Philip would in fact be the last King so crowned). Already stricken with paralysis, King Louis VII himself was not able to be present at the ceremony. He died on 18 September 1180 at the Abbey at Saint-Pont, Allier and is interred in Saint Denis Basilica.

    Legacy

    The reign of Louis VII was, from the point of view of royal territory and military power a difficult and unfortunate one. Yet the royal authority made progress in the parts of France distant from the royal domains: more direct andmore frequent connection was made with distant vassals, a result largely due to the alliance of the clergy with the crown. Louis VII thus reaped the reward for services rendered the church during the least successful portion of his reign. His greater accomplishments lie in the development of agriculture, population, commerce, the building of stone fortresses, as well as an intellectual renaissance. Considering the significant disparity of political leverage and financial resources between Louis VII and his Angevin rival, not to mention Henry II's superior military skills, Louis VII should be credited with preserving the Capetian dynasty.

    Fictional Portrayals

    Louis is a character in Jean Anouilh's play Becket. In the 1964 film adaptation he was portrayed by John Gielgud, who was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He was also portrayed by Charles Kay in the 1978 BBC TV drama series The Devil's Crown.
    --------------------
    Louis VII, called the Younger or the Young (French: Louis le Jeune; 1120 – 18 September 1180), was King of France, the son and successor of Louis VI (hence his nickname). He ruled from 1137 until his death. He was a member of the House of Capet. His reign was dominated by feudal struggles (in particular with the Angevin family), and saw the beginning of the long feud between France and England. It also saw the beginning of construction on Notre-Dame de Paris and the disastrous Second Crusade.
    --------------------
    King of France. He was reinterred in 1817 to St Denis Basilique. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=21090
    Marriage of Eleanor and Louis VII annuled in 1152.
    Louis VII
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    Deltog 1147-49 i andra korståget
    france-louis7[1]
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    The Young, King of the Franks
    Les Sources du Regne de Hughes Capet Revue Historique
    Tome XXVIII Paris 1891, P. Violet
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    Louis VII, France
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    Louis VII, King of France
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    [Master.FTW]

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    [camoys.FTW]

    [mpbennett-1-6285.ged]

    King of France Aug 1, 1137 thru 1180.
    "The Young."
    Louis was not heir to the thrown until his older brother Philip died.
    his first marraige was annuled on the grounds of "Consanguinity."
    This individual was found on GenCircles at: http://www.gencircles.com/users/mpbennett/1/data/6285[mpbennett-1-7385.ged]

    King of France Aug 1, 1137 thru 1180.
    "The Young."
    Louis was not heir to the thrown until his older brother Philip died.
    his first marraige was annuled on the grounds of "Consanguinity."
    This individual was found on GenCircles at: http://www.gencircles.com/users/mpbennett/1/data/6285
    Louis VII den yngre (på fransk: Louis VII le Jeune) (født 1120, død 18. september, 1180) var konge av Frankrike fra 1137 til 1180.
    Louis VII King of France
    http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=image&guid=ee5e6cd7-cdda-41fb-b02a-2964d571f103&tid=6959821&pid=-1100523116
    Louis VII King of France
    http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=image&guid=ee5e6cd7-cdda-41fb-b02a-2964d571f103&tid=6959821&pid=-1100523116
    KING OF FRANCE 1137-1180 (BECAME KING 8/1/1137); KNOWN AS "THE YOUNG"; A LEADER,
    ALONG WITH CONRAD III, OF THE 2ND CRUSADE (1147-1149); DIED AFTER A SERIES OF
    STROKES
    26th great grandfather
    ?? Line 3323: (New PAF RIN=9657)
    1 NAME Louis VII, King Of /FRANCE/
    ?? Line 4330: (New PAF MRIN=4799)
    1 MARR
    2 DATE 22 JUL 1137 DIV
    ?? Line 3323: (New PAF RIN=9997)
    1 NAME Louis VII, King Of /FRANCE/
    ?? Line 4330: (New PAF MRIN=4987)
    1 MARR
    2 DATE 22 JUL 1137 DIV
    ?? Line 2308: (New PAF RIN=10388)
    1 NAME Louis VII, King Of /FRANCE/
    ?? Line 3066: (New PAF MRIN=5157)
    1 MARR
    2 DATE 22 JUL 1137 DIV
    Louis VII, called The Young (1121?-80), king of France (1137-80), son and
    successor of Louis VI. In the first year of his reign he married Eleanor
    of Aquitaine, daughter of William X, duke of Aquitaine (1099-1137). Louis
    soon aroused the opposition of Pope Innocent II (reigned 1130-43) because
    of his support of a rival to the papal candidate for the archbishopric of
    Bourges, and his lands were placed under papal interdict. Louis next
    fought a 2-year war and conquered Champagne in 1144. In 1147 he joined the
    unsuccessful Second Crusade as one of its two chief military leaders (the
    other was Conrad III of Germany). Louis returned to France two years
    later, and in 1152 his marriage to Eleanor was annulled; in the same year
    she married Henry of Anjou, later Henry II, king of England. Louis warred
    with Henry for the possession of Aquitaine but renounced all rights to the
    duchy in 1154, the year Henry became king of England. Between 1157 and
    1180 Louis continued sporadic warfare against Henry, who held many of the
    French provinces. Louis was succeeded by his son Philip II (Philip
    Augustus).



    Louis VII (born 1120, ruled 1137-80) was the eldest son of Louis VI. Shortly before his death, Louis VI arrangedfor his son's marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine. By this marriage southwest France was added to the domains of the newFrench king. Unfortunately Louis, who was very religious and prone to be jealous, soon discovered that his beautifulqueen was a capricious flirt. In 1147 Louis departed for the Holy Land on the Second Crusade, taking his queen withhim. This Crusade was a miserable failure. After they returned, Louis had his marriage annulled in 1152. Eleanor atonce sent an embassy to Henry, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, proposing marriage. Henry was overjoyed becausethe alliance transferred to him the great duchy of Guienne. Two years later Henry and Eleanor were crowned king andqueen of England. France thus lost a rich territory to England, its greatest rival.
    For more information see the Our Folk - Hart family Web Site



    from "Our Folk" by Albert D Hart, Jr.
    france-louis7[1]
    http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=image&guid=df5239d0-c8c6-4da2-bd33-cc77cf14e3a5&tid=6959821&pid=-1150513698
    Louis VII the Young of France
    h t t p : / / t r e e s . a n c e s t r y . c o m / r d ? f = i m a g e&guid=e3ea7365-90c1-410c-b67f-5fe1c8271598&tid=312040&pid=-1911824687
    Louis VII
    http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=document&guid=e0508075-6089-43e4-afb1-b806a249d802&tid=10145763&pid=-603928626
    He ruled from 1137 to 1180.
    1 BIRT 2 DATE BET. 1119 - 1120
    1 BIRT 2 DATE BET. 1119 - 1120
    1 BIRT 2 DATE BET. 1119 - 1120
    !GRAND ARMORIAL DE FRANCE - EUROPE Q 944 D22J, VOL. 1

    UPDATE: 1994-03-14

    !SOURCE DOCUMENTATION:
    NAME:
    BIRTH:
    BAPTISM:
    ENDOWMENT:
    SEALING-P:
    MARRIAGE:
    SEALING-S:
    DEATH:
    BURIAL:

  • GENERAL NOTES:
    OCCUPATION:
    EDUCATION:
    RESIDENCY:
    ANCESTRAL FILE #:
    REMARKS:
    Crusader Shield
    http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=image&guid=3cfae8a1-e216-4bbd-80fb-bff9d224004b&tid=7047470&pid=857262962
    GIVN Louis VII "Der Dicke" Koenig
    SURN von Frankreich
    NSFX King of France
    AFN 8XJ2-7B
    DATE 9 SEP 2000
    TIME 13:15:39
    GIVN Louis VII "Der Dicke" Koenig
    SURN von Frankreich
    NSFX King of France
    AFN 8XJ2-7B
    DATE 9 SEP 2000
    TIME 13:15:39
    (Research):Louis VII Encyclopædia Britannica Article born c. 1120 died Sept. 18, 1180, Paris byname Louis The Younger, French Louis Le Jeune Capetian king of France who pursued a long rivalry, marked by recurrent warfare andcontinuous intrigue, with Henry II of England. =========================================================== In 1131 Louis was anointed as successor to his father, Louis VI, and in 1137 he became the sole ruler at his father's death. Louis married Eleanor, daughter of William X, duke of Aquitaine, in 1137, a few days before his effective rule began, and he thus temporarily extended the Capetian lands to the Pyrenees. Louis continued his father's pacification program by building the prestige of the kingship through an administrative government based on trustworthy men of humble origin and by consolidating his rule over his royal domains rather than by adding new acquisitions. From1141 to 1143 he was involved in a fruitless conflict with Count Thibaut of Champagne and the papacy. But thereafter his relations with the popes were good; Alexander II, whom he supported against Frederick Barbarossa, took refugein France. But the major threat to his reign came from Geoffrey, count of Anjou and, briefly, of Normandy, and Geoffrey's son Henry, who later (1154) became King Henry II of England as well as ruler of both Anjou and Normandy. After Louis repudiated his wife Eleanor for misconduct on March 21, 1152, she married Henry, who then took over control of Aquitaine. Ironically, this act was probably to Capetian advantage because Aquitaine might have drained the resources of Louis's kingdom while bringing him little revenue. After the death of Louis's second wife, he married Alix of Champagne, whose Carolingian blood brought added prestige to the monarchy (1160); their son became Philip IIAugustus. Louis might have defeated Henry if he had made concerted attacks rather than weak assaults on Normandy in 1152. Anglo-Norman family disputes saved Louis's kingdom from severe incursions during the many conflicts that Louis had with Henry between 1152 and 1174. Louis was helped by the quarrel (1164-70) between Henry and Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and a revolt (1173-74) of Henry's sons. Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, who acted as regent in 1147-49 while Louis was away on the Second Crusade, is the primary historian for Louis's reign. Louis VII, King of France 1137-1180, (1120-1180) In 1131, at the age of eleven, he was anointed as his father's successor; and when his father died in 1137 he became sole ruler of France. In the same year he married Eleanore de Poitou, Duchess of Aquitaine, so extending the Capetingian lands to the Pyrenees. He continued his father's program of appointing trustworthy people of lower origin to the administration of his government, thus improving the prestige of the monarchy. From 1141 to 1143 he was involved in a fruitless conflict with Thibaut, Count of Champagne, and the papacy. After this period his relations with the popes improved to such an extent that he supported Pope Alexander II against Frederick Barbarossa and even allowed the pope refuge in France. However, the main threats to his kingdom came from Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, and later from Geoffrey's son, the future Henry II, King of England. When Louis VII went on crusade, he took his wife with him. However, on their return he divorced her, the grounds officially being consanguinity, but the reasons were her rumoured affairs. Almost immediately she married King Henry II of England, taking Aquitaine with her. Louis VII then married Constance of Castile and, when she died, he married Alix de Champagne who became the mother of his son and heir, the future King Philippe II August. Louis VII might have defeated King Henry II had he made a concerted attack instead of the half-hearted attacks on Normandy, while at the same time France was spared attacks from the Anglo-Normans because of their internal quarrels. He also benefited from the long-standing quarrel between Henry II and Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, and a revolt of Henry's sons. Source: Leo van de Pas
    Source #1: Frederick Lewis Weis, "Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700" - Seventh Edition, with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., assisted by Davis Faris (Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co, 1995), pp. 97; 101-102

    King of France, December 25, 1137 - 1180.

    Married, 1stly, in Bordeaux, 22/25 July 1137, [AD ancestor] Eleanor of Aquitaine; divorced 1152.

    Married, 2ndly, in Orleans, 1153-54, Constance of Castile, who died 4 October 1160, buried, St. Denis. She was the daughter of [AD ancestor] Alfonso (VII), King of Castile and Leon.
    King of France
    Name Prefix:<NPFX> King Name Suffix:<NSFX> VII, Of France

    This page is justa start. Not all information has bee varified.
    Louis VII (born 1120, ruled 1137-80) was the eldest son of Louis VI.
    Shortly before his death, Louis VI arranged for his son's marriage to
    Eleanor of Aquitaine. By this marriage southwest France was added to
    the domains of the new French king. Unfortunately Louis, who was very
    religious and prone to be jealous, soon discovered that his beautiful
    queen was a capricious flirt.
    In 1147 Louis departed for the Holy Land on the Second Crusade,
    taking his queen with him. This Crusade was a miserable failure (see
    Crusades). After they returned, Louis had his marriage annulled in
    1152. Eleanor at once sent an embassy to Henry, count of Anjou and duke
    of Normandy, proposing marriage. Henry was overjoyed because the
    alliance transferred to him the great duchy of Guienne. Two years later
    Henry and Eleanor were crowned king and queen of England (see Henry,
    Kings of England, "Henry II"). France thus lost a rich territory to
    England, its greatest rival.


    ---------------------------------------------------------
    Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia
    Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 Compton's NewMedia, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    Louis VII of France
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180.

    A member of the Capetian Dynasty, Louis VII was born in 1120, the second son of Louis the Fat and Adélaide of Maurienne (c. 1100 - 1154). Construction began on Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris during his reign.

    As a younger son, Louis had been raised to follow the ecclesiastical path. He unexpectedly became the heir to the throne of France after the accidental death of his older brother, Philip, in 1131. A well-learned and exceptionally devout man, Louis was better suited for life as a priest than that of a monarch.

    In the same year he was crowned king of France, Louis VII was married on July 22, 1137 to Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122 - March 31, 1204), heiress of William X of Aquitaine. The pairing of the monkish Louis and the high-spirited Eleanor was doomed to failure; she once reportedly declared that she had thought to marry a king, only to find she'd married a monk. Their daughters were:

    Marie of Champagne (1145 - March 11, 1198), married Henry I of Champagne
    Alix of France (1151 - 1197/1198), married Theobald V of Blois
    In the first part of Louis VII's reign he was vigorous and jealous of his prerogatives, but after his crusade his piety limited his ability to become an effective statesman. His accession was marked by no disturbances, save the uprisings of the burgesses of Orléans and of Poitiers, who wished to organize communes. But soon he came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II. The archbishopric of Bourges became vacant, and the king supported as candidate the chancellor Cadurc, against the pope's nominee Pierre de la Chatre, swearing upon relics that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges. This brought the interdict upon the king's lands.

    Louis became involved in a war with Theobald II of Champagne, by permitting Raoul I of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife, Theobald's niece, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, sister of the queen of France. Champagne also sided with the pope in the dispute over Bourges. The war lasted two years (1142-44) and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry. More than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church, died in the flames. Overcome with guilt, Louis declared on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges his intention of going on a crusade. Bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay (Easter 1146).

    Meanwhile in 1144, Geoffrey the Handsome, count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy, threatening the royal domains. Louis VII by a clever manoeuvre threw his army on the Norman frontier and gained Gisors, one of the keys of Normandy.

    In June 1147 Louis and his queen, Eleanor, set out from Metz, Lorraine, on the overland route to Syria. Just beyond Laodicea the French army was ambushed by Turks. The French were bombarded by arrows and heavy stones, the Turks swarmed down from the mountains and the massacre began. The historian Odo of Deuil reported:

    "During the fighting the king [Louis] lost his small and famous royal guard, but he remained in good heart and nimbly and courageously scaled the side of the mountain by gripping the tree roots ... The enemy climbed after him, hoping to capture him, and the enemy in the distance continued to fire arrows at him. But God willed that his cuirass should protect him from the arrows, and to prevent himself from being captured he defended the crag with his bloodysword, cutting off many heads and hands."
    Louis and his army finally reached the Holy Land in 1148. His queen Eleanor supported her uncle, Raymond of Antioch, and prevailed upon Louis to help Antioch against Aleppo. But Louis' interest lay in Jerusalem, and so he slipped out of Antioch in secret. He united with Conrad III of Germany and King Baldwin III of Jerusalem to lay siege to Damascus; this ended in disaster and the project was abandoned. Louis decided to leave the Holy Land, despite the protests of Eleanor, who still wanted to help her doomed uncle Raymond of Antioch. Louis and the French army returned to France in 1149.

    The expedition came to a great cost to the royal treasury and military. It also precipitated a conflict with Eleanor, leading to the annulment of their marriage at the council of Beaugency (March 1152). The pretext of kinship was the basis for annulment. Its reasons had more to do with quarrels between Louis and Eleanor, her scandalous behavior during the Crusades, and the decreasing odds that their marriage would produce a male heir to the throne of France. Eleanor subsequently married Henry, Count of Anjou in the following May, which brought him the duchy of Aquitaine. Louis VII led an ineffective war against Henry for having married without the authorization of his suzerain; butin August 1154 gave up his rights over Aquitaine, and contented himself with an indemnity.

    In 1154 Louis married Constance, daughter of Alfonso VII, king of Castile. She, too, failed to give him a son and heir, bearing two more daughters:

    Marguerite of France(1158-1197), married (1) Henry the Young King; (2) King Bela III of Hungary
    Alys, Countess of the Vexin (October 4, 1160), engaged to Richard I of England; she married William III Talvas, Count of Ponthieu
    As part of a peace process with Henry II of England, Louis imprudently pledged his daughter, Marguerite, in the treaty of Gisors (1158) to Henry, Henry's eldest son, promising as a dowry the Norman Vexin and Gisors.

    Constance died in childbirth on the 4th of October 1160, and five weeks later Louis VII married Adèle of Champagne. Henry II, to counterbalance the advantage this would give the king of France, had the marriage of their children celebrated at once. Louis VII understood the danger of the growing Angevin power, however, through indecision and lack of fiscal and military resources compared to Henry's, Louis failed to oppose Angevin hegemony effectively. One of the few military successes of Louis, in 1159, was his expedition in the south to aid Raymond V, Count of Toulouse who had been attacked by Henry II. At the same time the emperor Frederick I in the east was making good the imperial claims on Arles. When the schism broke out, Louis took the part of the pope Alexander III, the enemy of Frederick, and after two comical failures of Frederick to meet Louis VII at Saint Jean de Losne (on the 29th of August and the 22nd of September 1162), Louis definitely gave himself up to the cause of Alexander, who lived at Sens from 1163 to 1165. Alexander gave the king, in return for his loyal support, the golden rose.

    Finally, in 1165 Adèle gave birth to them much longed-for son, along with a daughter a few years later. Louis and Adèle's children were:

    Philip II Augustus (August 22, 1165-1223)
    Agnes of France (1171-1240), who married (1) Alexius II Comnenus; (2) Andronicus I Comnenus; (3) Theodosius Branas
    Louis VII received Thomas Becket and tried to reconcile him with King Henry II. Louis sided with Thomas Becket as a way to weaken Henry politically. He also supported Henry's rebellious sons, but the rivalry between Henry's sons and Louis' own indecisiveness contributed to the break up of the coalition (1173-1174). Finally in 1177 the pope intervened to bring the two kings to terms at Vitry.

    His reign was a difficult and unfortunate one, from the point of view of royal territory and military power. Yet the royal authority made progress in the parts of France distant from the royal domains. More direct and more frequent connection was made with distant vassals, a result largely due to the alliance of the clergy with the crown. Louis thus reaped the reward for services rendered the church during the least successful portion of his reign. His greater accomplishments lie in the development of agriculture, population, commerce, the building of stone fortresses, as well as an intellectual renaissance. Considering the significant disparity of political leverage and financial resources between Louis and his Angevin rival, not to mention Henry's superior military skills, Louis should be credited with preserving the Capetian dynasty.

    He was to be succeeded by his son by Adèle, Philip II Augustus and had him crowned at Reims in 1179. However, already stricken with paralysis, King Louis himself was not able to be present at the ceremony.

    Louis VII died on September 18, 1180 at the Abbey at Saint-Pont, Allier and is interred in Saint Denis Basilica.

    Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
    Louis VII of France


    Preceded by:
    Louis VI King of France
    1137–1180 Succeeded by:
    Philip II
    Preceded by:
    William X Duke of Aquitaine
    with Eleanor
    1137–1152 Succeeded by:
    Henry I and Eleanor
    Count of Poitiers
    with Eleanor
    1137–1152
    Louis VII (born 1120, ruled 1137-80) was the eldest son of Louis VI.
    Shortly before his death, Louis VI arranged for his son's marriage to
    Eleanor of Aquitaine. By this marriage southwest France was added to
    the domains of the new French king. Unfortunately Louis, who was very
    religious and prone to be jealous, soon discovered that his beautiful
    queen was a capricious flirt.
    In 1147 Louis departed for the Holy Land on the Second Crusade,
    taking his queen with him. This Crusade was a miserable failure (see
    Crusades). After they returned, Louis had his marriage annulled in
    1152. Eleanor at once sent an embassy to Henry, count of Anjou and duke
    of Normandy, proposing marriage. Henry was overjoyed because the
    alliance transferred to him the great duchy of Guienne. Two years later
    Henry and Eleanor were crowned king and queen of England (see Henry,
    Kings of England, "Henry II"). France thus lost a rich territory to
    England, its greatest rival.


    ---------------------------------------------------------
    Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia
    Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 Compton's NewMedia, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    Louis continued his father's pacification program by building the prestigue
    of the kingship through administrative governmnet based on trustworthy men
    of humble origin and by consolidating his rule over his royal domains rather
    than adding new acquisitions.He repudiated his wife Eleanor for misconduct on
    Mar-21-1152, even though she bore him 2 daughters, thereby losing control of
    Aquitaine to her new husband, and Louis's ongoing enemy, Henry II of
    England. With Henry, she bore him 5 sons and 3 daughters of note.
    Louis VII (Louis the Young), c. 1120?1180, king of France (1137?80), son and successor of King Louis VI. Before his accession he married Eleanor of Aquitaine. A controversy with Pope Innocent II over Louis's refusal to accept the papal appointee to the archbishopric of Bourges led to a papal interdict on Louis and to warfare between the king and the count of Champagne, who supported the papal candidate. It was settled, after the intervention of St. Bernardof Clairvaux, by Louis's capitulation (1144) to Pope Celestine II, Innocent's successor. In the course of that war Geoffrey IV (Geoffrey Plantagenet), count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy; Louis, in return for a small concession, acquiesced in the conquest. In 1147, Louis left on the Second Crusade (see Crusades), after appointing Abbé Suger as regent. The crusade failed, and he returned in 1149. In 1152 Louis, suspecting Eleanor of being unfaithful, had his marriage with her annulled. Her subsequent marriage with Henry Plantagenet (later King Henry II of England), Geoffrey's son, resulted in Henry's claims to Aquitaine and precipitated recurrent warfare between Louis and Henry. Louis supported Thomas à Becket during his exile from England and joined in the revolt of Henry's sons (1173?74), but won no territory. He completed his father's work of subduing the barons on the royal domain and continued to increase his influence over more distant vassals. His son Philip II succeeded him
    Family:

    Marriage: 13 NOV 1160
    Spouse: Champagne, Ailxde Navarre de Countess/Champagne
    Birth: ABT 1140 Blois Loir-et-Cher, France
    Death: 4 JUN 1206 Paris, France
    Gender: Female
    Parents:

    Father: Navarre, Thibaud IV (II) "Great" de C/Blois
    Mother: Sponheim, Maude de Salian von Princess/Carinthia

    Children:

    Capet, Adelaide "Alice" de Princess/France
    Capet, Philip Augustus II K/Franc
    Louis continued his father's pacification program by building the prestigue
    of the kingship through administrative governmnet based on trustworthy men
    of humble origin and by consolidating his rule over his royal domains rather
    than adding new acquisitions.He repudiated his wife Eleanor for misconduct on
    Mar-21-1152, even though she bore him 2 daughters, thereby losing control of
    Aquitaine to her new husband, and Louis's ongoing enemy, Henry II of
    England. With Henry, she bore him 5 sons and 3 daughters of note.
    Louis VII (born 1120, ruled 1137-80) was the eldest son of Louis VI.
    Shortly before his death, Louis VI arranged for his son's marriage to
    Eleanor of Aquitaine. By this marriage southwest France was added to
    the domains of the new French king. Unfortunately Louis, who was very
    religious and prone to be jealous, soon discovered that his beautiful
    queen was a capricious flirt.
    In 1147 Louis departed for the Holy Land on the Second Crusade,
    taking his queen with him. This Crusade was a miserable failure (see
    Crusades). After they returned, Louis had his marriage annulled in
    1152. Eleanor at once sent an embassy to Henry, count of Anjou and duke
    of Normandy, proposing marriage. Henry was overjoyed because the
    alliance transferred to him the great duchy of Guienne. Two years later
    Henry and Eleanor were crowned king and queen of England (see Henry,
    Kings of England, "Henry II"). France thus lost a rich territory to
    England, its greatest rival.


    ---------------------------------------------------------
    Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia
    Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 Compton's NewMedia, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    A biography of King Louis VII
    Family:

    Marriage: 13 NOV 1160
    Spouse: Champagne, Ailxde Navarre de Countess/Champagne
    Birth: ABT 1140 Blois Loir-et-Cher, France
    Death: 4 JUN 1206 Paris, France
    Gender: Female
    Parents:

    Father: Navarre, Thibaud IV (II) "Great" de C/Blois
    Mother: Sponheim, Maude de Salian von Princess/Carinthia

    Children:

    Capet, Adelaide "Alice" de Princess/France
    Capet, Philip Augustus II K/Franc
    Louis continued his father's pacification program by building the prestigue
    of the kingship through administrative governmnet based on trustworthy men
    of humble origin and by consolidating his rule over his royal domains rather
    than adding new acquisitions.He repudiated his wife Eleanor for misconduct on
    Mar-21-1152, even though she bore him 2 daughters, thereby losing control of
    Aquitaine to her new husband, and Louis's ongoing enemy, Henry II of
    England. With Henry, she bore him 5 sons and 3 daughters of note.
    Louis VII (born 1120, ruled 1137-80) was the eldest son of Louis VI.
    Shortly before his death, Louis VI arranged for his son's marriage to
    Eleanor of Aquitaine. By this marriage southwest France was added to
    the domains of the new French king. Unfortunately Louis, who was very
    religious and prone to be jealous, soon discovered that his beautiful
    queen was a capricious flirt.
    In 1147 Louis departed for the Holy Land on the Second Crusade,
    taking his queen with him. This Crusade was a miserable failure (see
    Crusades). After they returned, Louis had his marriage annulled in
    1152. Eleanor at once sent an embassy to Henry, count of Anjou and duke
    of Normandy, proposing marriage. Henry was overjoyed because the
    alliance transferred to him the great duchy of Guienne. Two years later
    Henry and Eleanor were crowned king and queen of England (see Henry,
    Kings of England, "Henry II"). France thus lost a rich territory to
    England, its greatest rival.


    ---------------------------------------------------------
    Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia
    Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 Compton's NewMedia, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    Louis continued his father's pacification program by building the prestigue
    of the kingship through administrative governmnet based on trustworthy men
    of humble origin and by consolidating his rule over his royal domains rather
    than adding new acquisitions.He repudiated his wife Eleanor for misconduct on
    Mar-21-1152, even though she bore him 2 daughters, thereby losing control of
    Aquitaine to her new husband, and Louis's ongoing enemy, Henry II of
    England. With Henry, she bore him 5 sons and 3 daughters of note.
    Louis VII retained his father's ministers (including Suger, who was Abbo t of Saint-Denis) and put the finishing touches to policies aimed at th e submission of the feudal lords in the Paris basin. Two major events to ok place during his reign - his departure for the Second Crusade (1147-11 49) and his divorce from Eleanore of Aquitane in 1152. She married Henr y II, Count of Anjou, in 1154. Henry mounted the throne of England and ow ned an enclave in France (Normandy, Auvergne, Aquitaine, and Guyenne) tha t posed a threat to France.[johnpanagentA.FTW]
    Louis VII retained his father's ministers (including Suger, who was Abbo t of Saint-Denis) and put the finishing touches to policies aimed at th e submission of the feudal lords in the Paris basin. Two major events to ok place during his reign - his departure for the Second Crusade (1147-11 49) and his divorce from Eleanore of Aquitane in 1152. She married Henr y II, Count of Anjou, in 1154. Henry mounted the throne of England and ow ned an enclave in France (Normandy, Auvergne, Aquitaine, and Guyenne) tha t posed a threat to France.
    The following is from the Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia Online. Grolier Interactive Inc. <http://gi.grolier.com/encyclopedial>. January 2, 1998:

    Louis VII, King of France (Louis the Young)
    Louis VII, b. 1121, d. Sept. 18, 1180, the second son of Louis VI of France, became heir to the throne on the death (1131) of his elder brother. He succeeded his father in 1137, a few days after marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine. Louis inherited not only a prosperous, well-pacified royal domain, but also two experienced counselors, Raoul of Vermandois and Suger. His youth and inexperience led Louis into over-ambitious projects during the first 15 years of his reign. One of these was the Second Crusade (1147-49), which was a military disaster, although it enhanced the visibility, and hence the prestige, of the French crown.
    In 1152, Louis had his marriage to Eleanor annulled, and she promptly married Henry, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, who became Henry II of England in 1154. The addition of Aquitaine to Henry's other possessions made him muchmore powerful than Louis, and he was a frequently hostile neighbor. With Suger and Raoul both dead by the end of 1152, Louis had to reconstruct his government around new advisors. He established close ties with the counts of Flanders and Champagne, collaborated with the church, encouraged the growing towns, and carefully managed the resources of the royal domain. To check Henry II and the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I, he reestablished strong royal influence in Burgundy and Languedoc. He also supported the intrigues of Henry's rebellious sons. In 1165, Louis's third wife, Adele of Champagne, gave birth to a long-desired male heir, who was to succeed to the throne as Philip II. Louis barely managed to hold his own against his rival, Henry II, with his vast holdings. He left to his son, Philip, however, a stronger and better-respected French monarchy than he had inherited.

    Author: John B. Henneman
    The following is from the Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia Online. Grolier Interactive Inc. <http://gi.grolier.com/encyclopedial>. January 2, 1998:

    Louis VII, King of France (Louis the Young)
    Louis VII, b. 1121, d. Sept. 18, 1180, the second son of Louis VI of France, became heir to the throne on the death (1131) of his elder brother. He succeeded his father in 1137, a few days after marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine. Louis inherited not only a prosperous, well-pacified royal domain, but also two experienced counselors, Raoul of Vermandois and Suger. His youth and inexperience led Louis into over-ambitious projects during the first 15 years of his reign. One of these was the Second Crusade (1147-49), which was a military disaster, although it enhanced the visibility, and hence the prestige, of the French crown.
    In 1152, Louis had his marriage to Eleanor annulled, and she promptly married Henry, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, who became Henry II of England in 1154. The addition of Aquitaine to Henry's other possessions made him muchmore powerful than Louis, and he was a frequently hostile neighbor. With Suger and Raoul both dead by the end of 1152, Louis had to reconstruct his government around new advisors. He established close ties with the counts of Flanders and Champagne, collaborated with the church, encouraged the growing towns, and carefully managed the resources of the royal domain. To check Henry II and the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I, he reestablished strong royal influence in Burgundy and Languedoc. He also supported the intrigues of Henry's rebellious sons. In 1165, Louis's third wife, Adele of Champagne, gave birth to a long-desired male heir, who was to succeed to the throne as Philip II. Louis barely managed to hold his own against his rival, Henry II, with his vast holdings. He left to his son, Philip, however, a stronger and better-respected French monarchy than he had inherited.

    Author: John B. Henneman
    Styled le Jeune or le Pieux.
    In 1131, at the age of eleven, Louis was anointed as his father's successor; and when his father died in 1137 he became sole ruler of France. In the same year he married Eleanore de Poitou, Duchess of Aquitaine, so extending the Capetingian lands to the Pyrenees. He continued his father's program of appointing trustworthy people of lower origin to the administration of his government, so improving the prestige of the monarchy.
    From 1141 to 1143 he was involved in a fruitless conflict with Thibaut, Count of Champagne, and with the papacy. After this period his relations with the popes improved to such an extent that he supported Pope Alexander II againstFrederick Barbarossa and even allowed the pope refuge in France. In 1163 the construction began of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. It would take until 1235 before it was finished.
    The main threats to his kingdom came from Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, and later from Geoffrey's son, the future Henry II, King of England. When Louis VII went on crusade he took his wife with him. However, on their return he divorced her, the grounds officially being consanguinity, but the reasons were her rumoured affairs. Almost immediately she married King Henry II of England, taking Aquitaine with her. Louis VII then married Constance of Castile, and when she died he married Alix de Champagne who became the mother of his son and heir, the future King Philippe II August.
    `Louis VII might have defeated King Henry II had he made a concerted attack instead of the half-hearted attacks on Normandy; at the same time France was spared attacks from the Anglo-Normans because of their internal quarrels. Louis also benefited from the long-standing quarrel between Henry II and Thomas à Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, and from a revolt by Henry's sons
    [v37t1235.ftw]

    Facts about this person:

    Acceded1137


    Interred
    Abbey Barbeaux, Melun, France
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
    Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 - September18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180.

    A member of the Capetian Dynasty, Louis VII was born in 1120, thesecond son of Louis the Fat and Adélaide of Maurienne (c. 1100 -1154). Construction began on Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris during hisreign.


    As a younger son, Louis had been raised to follow the ecclesial path.He unexpectedly became the heir to the throne of France after theaccidental death of his older brother, Philip, in 1131. A well-learnedand exceptionally devout man, Louis was better suited for life as amonk than that of a monarch.

    In the same year he was crowned king of France, Louis VII was marriedon July 22, 1137 to Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122 - March 31, 1204),heiress of William II, Duke of Aquitaine. The pairing of the monkishLouis and the high-spirted Eleanor was doomed to failure; she oncereportedly declared that she had thought to marry a king, only to findshe'd married a monk. Their daughters were:

    Marie (1145 - March 11, 1198), married Henry I of Champagne
    Alix (1151 - 1197/1198), married Theobald IV of Blois
    In the first part of Louis VII's reign he was vigorous and jealous ofhis prerogatives, but after his crusade his piety limited his abilityto become an effective statesman. His accession was marked by nodisturbances, save the uprisings of the burgesses of Orléans and ofPoitiers, who wished to organize communes. But soon he came intoviolent conflict with Pope Innocent II. The archbishopric of Bourgesbecame vacant, and the king supported as candidate the chancellorCadurc, against the pope's nominee Pierre de la Chatre, swearing uponrelics that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges.This brought the interdict upon the king's lands.

    Louis became involved in a war with Theobald II of Champagne, bypermitting Raoul of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiatehis wife, Theobald's niece, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine,sister of the queen of France. Champagne also sided with the pope inthe dispute over Bourges. The war lasted two years (1142-44) and endedwith the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis waspersonally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry.More than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church, diedin the flames. Overcome with guilt, Louis declared on Christmas Day1145 at Bourges his intention of going on a crusade. Bernard ofClairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay (Easter1146).

    Meanwhile in 1144, Geoffrey the Handsome, count of Anjou, completedhis conquest of Normandy, threatening the royal domains. Louis VII bya clever manoeuvre threw his army on the Norman frontier and gainedGisors, one of the keys of Normandy.

    In June 1147 Louis and his queen, Eleanor, set out from Metz,Lorraine, on the overland route to Syria. Just beyond Laodicea theFrench army was ambushed by Turks. The French were bombarded by arrowsand heavy stones, the Turks swarmed down from the mountains and themassacre began. The historian Odo of Deuil reported:

    "During the fighting the king [Louis] lost his small and famous royalguard, but he remained in good heart and nimbly and courageouslyscaled the side of the mountain by gripping the tree roots ... Theenemy climbed after him, hopingto capture him, and the enemy in thedistance continued to fire arrows at him. But God willed that hiscuirass should protect him from the arrows, and to prevent himselffrom being captured he defended the crag with his bloody sword,cutting off many heads and hands."
    Louis and his army finally reached the Holy Land in 1148. His queenEleanor supported her uncle, Raymond of Antioch, and prevailed uponLouis to help Antioch against Aleppo. But Louis' interest lay inJerusalem, and so he slipped outof Antioch in secret. He united withConrad III of Germany and King Baldwin III of Jerusalem to lay seigeto Damascus; this ended in disaster and the project was abandoned.Louis decided to leave the Holy Land, despite the protests of Eleanor,who still wanted to help her doomed uncle Raymond of Antioch. Louisand the French army returned to France in 1149.

    The expedition came to a great cost to the royal treasury andmilitary. It also precipitated a conflict with Eleanor, leading to theannulment of their marriage at the council of Beaugency (March 1152).The pretext of kinship was thebasis for annulment. Its reasons hadmore to do with quarrels between Louis and Eleanor, her scandalousbehavior during the Crusades, and the decreasing odds that theirmarriage would produce a male heir to the throne of France. Eleanorsubsequently married Henry, Count of Anjou in the following May, whichbrought him the duchy of Aquitaine. Louis VII led an ineffective waragainst Henry for having married without the authorization of hissuzerain; but in August1154 gave up his rights over Aquitaine, andcontented himself with an indemnity.

    In 1154 Louis married Constance, daughter of Alfonso VII, king ofCastile. She, too, failed to give him a son and heir, bearing two moredaughters:

    Marguerite (1158-1197), married (1) Henry the Young King; (2) KingBela III of Hungary
    Alys, Countess of Vexin (October 4, 1160), engaged to Richard I ofEngland; she married William III Talvas, Count of Ponthieu
    As part of a peace process with Henry II of England, Louis imprudentlypledged his daughter, Marguerite, in the treaty of Gisors (1158) toHenry, Henry's eldest son, promising as a dowry the Norman Vexin andGisors.

    Constance died in childbirth on the 4th of October 1160, and fiveweeks later Louis VII married Adèle of Champagne. Henry II, tocounterbalance the advantage this would give the king of France, hadthe marriage of their children celebrated at once. Louis VIIunderstood the danger of the growing Angevin power, however, throughindecision and lack of fiscal and military resources compared toHenry's, Louis failed to oppose Angevin hegemony effectively. One ofthe few military successes of Louis, in 1159, was his expedition inthe south to aid Raymond V, Count of Toulouse who had been attacked byHenry II. At the same time the emperor Frederick I in the east wasmaking good the imperial claims on Arles. When the schism broke out,Louis took the part of the pope Alexander III, the enemy of Frederick,and after two comical failures of Frederick to meet Louis VII at SaintJean de Losne (on the 29th of August and the 22nd of September 1162),Louis definitely gave himself up to the cause of Alexander, who livedat Sens from 1163 to 1165. Alexander gave the king, in return for hisloyal support, the golden rose.

    Finally, in 1165 Adele gave birth to them much longed-for son, alongwith a daughter a few years later. Louis and Adele's children were:

    Philip II Augustus (August 22, 1165-1223)
    Agnes of France (1171-1240), who married (1) Alexius II Comnenus; (2)Andronicus I Comnenus
    Louis VII received Thomas Becket and tried to reconcile him with KingHenry II. Louis sided with Thomas Becket as a way to weaken Henrypolitically. He also supported Henry's rebellious sons, but therivalry between Henry's sons and Louis' own indecisiveness contributedto the break up of the coalition (1173-1174). Finally in 1177 the popeintervened to bring the two kings to terms at Vitry.

    His reign was a difficult and unfortunate one, from the point of viewof royal territory and military power. Yet the royal authority madeprogress in the parts of France distant from the royal domains. Moredirect and more frequent connection was made with distant vassals, aresult largely due to the alliance of the clergy with the crown. Louisthus reaped the reward for services rendered the church during theleast successful portion of his reign. His greater accomplishments liein the development of agriculture, population, commerce, the buildingof stone fortresses, as well as an intellectual renaissance.Considering the significant disparity of political leverage andfinancial resources between Louis and his Angevin rival, not tomention Henry's superior military skills, Louis should be creditedwith preserving the Capetian dynasty.

    He was to be succeeded by his son by Adèle, Philip II Augustus and hadhim crowned at Reims in 1179. However, already stricken withparalysis, King Louis himself was not able to be present at theceremony.

    Louis VII died on September 18, 1180 at the Abbey at Saint-Pont,Allier and is interred in Saint Denis Basilica.
    Louis VII, Roi de France was born circa 1121.3 He was the son of Louis VI, Roi de France and Adelaide di Savoia.1 He married, firstly, Eleanor, Duchesse d'Aquitaine, daughter of Guillaume X, Duc d'Aquitaine and Eleanor Châtellérault de Rochefoucauld, on 25 July 1137 at Bordeaux Cathedral, Bordeaux, Dauphine, France.4 He and Eleanor, Duchesse d'Aquitaine were divorced in 1152 on the grounds of consanguity.3 He married, secondly, Constanza de Castilla, daughter of Alfonso VII, Rey de Castilla and Berengaria de Provence, in 1154. He married, thirdly, Adele de Champagne, daughter of Thibaud IV, Comte de Blois and Matilda of Carinthia, on 13 November 1160.5 He died on 18 September 1180 at Paris, France.5 He was buried at Abbey Barbeaux, Melun, Île-de-France, France.
    Louis VII, Roi de France was a member of the House of Capet.1 Louis VII, Roi de France also went by the nick-name of Louis 'le Jeune' (or in English, 'the Younger').1 He succeeded to the title of Roi Louis VII de France in 1137.1
    Children of Louis VII, Roi de France and Eleanor, Duchesse d'Aquitaine
    Marie de France, Princesse de France b. 1145, d. 11986
    Alice de France, Princesse de France+ b. 1150, d. 11986
    Children of Louis VII, Roi de France and Constanza de Castilla
    Marguerite de France, Princesse de France+ b. 1158, d. 1198
    Alix de France+ b. 4 Oct 1160, d. a 1200
    Children of Louis VII, Roi de France and Adele de Champagne
    Philippe II Auguste, Roi de France+ b. 21 Aug 1165, d. 14 Jul 12231
    Agnes de France, Princesse de France b. 1171, d. a 1240
    Citations
    [S38] John Morby, Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook (Oxford, Oxfordshire, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989), page 77. Hereinafter cited as Dynasties of the World.
    [S130] Wikipedia, online http;//www.wikipedia.org. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
    [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 59. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.
    [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 58.
    [S45] Marcellus Donald R. von Redlich, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, volume I (1941; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2002), page 64. Hereinafter cited as Pedigrees of Emperor Charlemagne, I.
    [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.
    Louis VII theYounger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. A member of the Capetian Dynasty, Louis VII was bo rn in 1120, the second son of Louis VI of France and Adélaide of Mauri enne (c. 1100-1154). Construction began on Notre-Dame de Paris in Par is during his reign. At least one souce indicates that Louis may actu ally have been b. at Fountainbleau.

    As a younger son, Louis VII had been raised to follow the ecclesiastic al path. He unexpectedly became the heir to the throne of France afte r the accidental death of his older brother, Philip, in 1131. Louis i s styled as a gentleman, tender hearted, courteous, pious, bookish an d possessing an attractive personality. A well-learned and exceptiona lly devout man, Louis VII was better suited for life as a priest than that of a monarch. During his reign,he intervened several times to p rotect the churches in Auvergne. It is said that he was scrupulously just. Tools that Louis followed included the French 'pariage' and th e French 'souvegarde' in his administration of the country. It is rep orted that Louis had the soul of a monk and found 'his dual role as mo narch and as husband uncongenial'. Louis maintained a country mansio n at Fountainebleau. During his reign, Louis added the Sees of Autun in the province of Lyon, Mende in the province of Bourges and Agde in the province of Narbonne to those held by his father. Also during hi s reign, he was assiduous about building up friendships and loyalties within the boundaries ofToulouse.

    Prior to his coronation, Louis is said to have spent his life as a 'ch ildmonk' at the Abbey of Saint-Denis near Paris. He is styled as 'swe et tempered, unworldly and pious'. His father feared that he would be easily manipulatedby the barons. Thus, Louis’ father began to train him as a knight and in the art of statecraft. By 1137, Louis remain ed rather naive, humble and devout, with occasional outbursts of tempe r. In 1137, Louis made a military expedition against Gaucher de Monti gny and at the time, he was tall and muscular, with fair hair and blu e eyes. At the beginning of his reign Louis, was jealous of his prero gatives, but in later life his devotion to religion made him utterly i nefficient. His manor of rule was often governed by his current feeli ngs and ideals. He continued his father’s policy of reaffirming the r ights of the crown. Louis leaned heavily upon his former teacher Abbo t Suger for help in governing his realm.

    In the same year he was crowned King of France, Louis VII was married on July 22, 1137 to Eleanor of Aquitaine, heiress of William X of Aqui taine (1126-37). The pairing of the monkish Louis VII and the high-spi rited Eleanor was doomed to failure; she once reportedly declared tha t she had thought to marry a King, only to find she'd married a monk. Their daughters were: Marie of Champagne (1145 - March 11, 1198), wh o married Henry I of Champagne; Alix of France (1151-1197/1198), who m arried Theobald V of Blois (1151-91). At the time that Petronelle (E leanor of Aquitaines sister) and Raoul eloped, Raoul was still marrie d to Eleanor of Champagne. Eleanor d'Aquitaine convinced her husband Louis of France to support her sister and it eventually came to war an d Champagne was defeated.

    In 1141, at the prompting of Eleanor, Louis decided to lay claim to To ulouse. She believed that it was rightfully hers by her descent from Philippa of Toulouse. It was then governed by Count Alfonso Jordon. Louis VII became involved in a war with Theobald II of Champagne, by p ermitting Raoul I of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife, Theobald II's niece, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, s ister of the queen of France. Champagne also sided with the Pope in t he dispute over Bourges. The war lasted two years (1142-44) and ende d with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis VII was pe rsonally involved in the assault and burning of the townof Vitry. Mor e than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church died in t heflames. Overcome with guilt, Louis VII declared on Christmas Day 114 5 at Bourges his intention of going on a crusade. Bernard of Clairvau x assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay (Easter 1146). B erttrand was also responsible for the establishment of the Cistercian movement which placed heavy emphasis on labor in the fields.

    Louis's forces ran amock and burnt the cathedral at Vitry wherein hund reds of women and children had sought shelter. They were killed. Lou is feeling responsible took the cross and decided to atone for his si n by making a crusade. He cut his hair as a monk and became often ver y somber and always extremely devout. He went on the second crusade ( Eleanor chose to join him on the journey), and on 20 January 1148 Loui s reached Antalya. Between the following 24 and 28 of July during th e Second crusade he was defeated outside Damascus. Louis VII commande d the largest army put into the field by the Latin’s assembled at Tibe ria. He served with Conrad III and King Baldwin III of Jerusalem. Up on his return to France, he found that the prestige of the Crown had b een greatly diminished.

    In the first part of Louis VII's reign he was vigorous and jealous of his prerogatives, but after his crusade his piety limited his ability to become an effective statesman. His accession was marked by no distu rbances, save the uprisings of the burgesses of Orléans and of Poitier s, who wished to organize communes. But soon he came into violent conf lict with Pope Innocent II (1130-43). The archbishopric of Bourges bec ame vacant, and the King supported as candidate the chancellor Cadurc , against the Pope's nominee Pierre de la Chatre, swearing upon relic s that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges.

    A controversy with Pope Innocent II over Louis's refusal to accept th e papal appointee to the archbishopric of Bourges led to a papal inter dict on Louis and to warfare between the king and the count of Champag ne, who supported the papal candidate. It was settled, after the inter vention of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, by Louis's capitulation (1144) t o Pope CelestineII, Innocent's successor. In the course of that war Ge offrey IV (Geoffrey Plantagenet), count of Anjou, completed his conque st of Normandie; Louis, in return for a small concession, acquiesced i n the conquest. This brought the interdict upon the King's lands.

    In March 1146, Louis received a letter from the Pope bestowing his ble ssings on the intended crusade. United with Louis in this effort wer e Count Theobald’s heir Henry, Count Alfonso Jordan of Toulouse, Louis ' brother Robert -Count of Creux and Thierry of Alsace - Count of Fla nders. In 1147, Louis left on the Second Crusade, after appointing Ab bé Suger as regent. His army included some 100,000 individuals and de parted for the Holy Land on 11 June1147, from Metz. The French army proceeded at a brisk pace to Ratisbon (Regensburg) in Bavaria, then fo llowed the Danube through Hungary and Bulgaria, covering 10 to 20 mile s a day. His army marched close to the coast of AsiaMinor so as to r emain in Byzantine territory as long as possible.

    On 3 October 1147, the army approached the walls of Constantinople, wh ere they remained for twelve days. From there the army moved south ac ross the Bosporus and along the coast of Asia Minor. By November, the y met up with theremnants’ of Conrad III's army. They continued thei r progress towards the Holy Land along a coastal route. At Ephesus, C onrad who had received a head wound at Anadolu, was to weak to carry o n and was returned to Constantinople by boat. By January 1148, the ar my reached the area of Mount Cadmos in the mountains of Paphlagonia wh ere they were attacked by the Turks. Louis was found blood smeared an d half dead from fatigue. A small remnant of the army reached Antioc h by 19 March 1148. The people of Antioch and Eleanor urged Louis to m arch on Edessa some 150 miles to the northeast of antioch which had be en taken by the Moslems. Louis chose not to continue the fight and mo ved on Jerusalem. Eleanor threatened Louis with divorce as a result . In May 1148, Louis reached Jerusalem where he was welcome as a hero . Louis was welcomed by Queen Melisende with her son Baldwin III of F landers. There, he laid the Oriflamme of France on the altar of the C hurch of the Holy Sepulchre fulfilling th vow of his pilgrimage. He s oon began a siege of Damascus on 28 July 1148 but after four days gav e up the effort in humiliating failure, which signaled the end of the crusade. The French had become the laughing stock of the Muslim world . Louis allowed his army to disband and return home, but he lingered hoping to spend Easter in the Holy Land.

    The crusade failed, and he returned in 1149 with lost or failed battle s at best. Louis and Eleanor sailed from Acre in two Sicilian vessel s bound for Calabria in southern Italy. Near Cape Malea they were con fronted by hostileByzantine ships. A violent storm separated his ves sel from that carrying Eleanor. Louis was feared lost at sea until th ey arrived near Calabria or Brindisi on 29 July 1148. From there the royal party made their way to Rome. They arrived back in Paris 11 Nov ember 1148. After their return, the relationship between Louis and El eanor continued to decline. Louis blamed much of the failure of the c rusade on Eleanor. Any affection between the couple was on the part o f Louis only. In 1152 Louis, suspecting Eleanor of being unfaithful, had his marriage with her annulled. Her subsequent marriage with Henr y Plantagenet (later King Henry II of England), Geoffrey's son, result ed in Henry's claims to Aquitaine and precipitated recurrent warfare b etween Louis and Henry. Louis supported Thomas à Becket during his exi le from England and joined in the revolt of Henry's sons (1173 - 1174) , but won no territory. He completed his father's work of subduing th e barons onthe royal domain and continued to increase his influence ov er more distant vassals. His son Philip II succeeded him.

    The expedition came to a great cost to the royal treasury and military . It also precipitated a conflict with Eleanor, leading to the annulme nt of their marriage at the council of Beaugency (March 1152). The pre text of kinship was the basis for annulment. Its reasons had more to d o with quarrels between Louis VII and Eleanor, her scandalous behavio r during the Crusades, and the decreasing odds that their marriage wou ld produce a male heir to the throne of France. Eleanor subsequently m arried Henry, Count of Anjou in the following May, which brought him t he duchy of Aquitaine. French historians have often critized Louis fo r allowing the creation of the Angevin menace by hisrepudiation of hi s wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. In June of 1152, Louis VII led an army i nto Normandie in an ineffective war against Henry for having married w ithout the authorization of his suzerain; in 1153, Louis moved militar ily against Geoffrey de Donzy and in August 1154 gave up his rights ov er Aquitaine, and contented himself with an indemnity.

    In 1154 Louis VII married Constance of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VI I (1126-57), King of Castile. She, too, failed to give him a son and h eir, bearing two more daughters: Marguerite of France (1158-1197), mar ried (1) Henry the Young King; (2) King Béla III of Hungary (1172-96) ; Adelaide or Alys (4 October 1160 - ca. 1220), engaged to Richard Io f England; she married William III Talvas, Count of Ponthieu. Henry I I and Louis were reconciled in Augut 1154. As part of the peace proce ss with Henry II of England (1154-89), Louis VII imprudently pledged h is daughter, Marguerite, in the treaty of Gisors (1158) to Henry, Henr y II's eldest son, promising as a dowry the Norman Vexin and Gisors. In 1157 Louis conducted a military campaign against Etienne de Sancerr e.

    Constance died in childbirth on 4 October 1160, and five weeks later L ouis VII married Adèle of Champagne. Henry II, to counterbalance the a dvantage this would give the King of France, had the marriage of thei r children (Henry "the Young King" and Marguerite) celebrated at once . Louis VII understood the danger of the growing Angevin power, howeve r, through indecision and lack of fiscal and military resources compar ed to Henry II's, Louis VII failed to oppose Angevin hegemony effectiv ely. One of the few military successes of Louis VII, in 1159, was his expedition in the south to aid Raymond V, Count of Toulouse who had be en attacked by Henry II. At the same time the emperor Frederick I (115 2-90) in the east was making good the imperial claims on Arles. When t he schism broke out, Louis VII took the part of the Pope Alexander II I (1159-81), the enemy of Frederick I, and after two comical failures ofFrederick I to meet Louis VII at Saint Jean de Losne (on the 29th o f August and the 22nd of September 1162), Louis VII definitely gave hi mself up to the cause of Alexander III, who lived at Sens from 1163 t o 1165. Alexander III gave the King, in return for his loyal support, the golden rose.

    Finally, in 1165 Adèle gave birth to them much longed-for son, along w ith a two daughters a few years later. Louis VII's and Adèle's childre n were: Philip II Augustus (August 22, 1165 - 1223); Agnes of France ( 1171-1240), who was betrothed to Alexius II Comnenus (1180-83) but mar ried (1) Andronicus I Comnenus (1183-85); Theodore Branas (1204); Loui s VII received Thomas Becket and tried to reconcile him with King Henr y II. on 6 January 1169, Louis met with Henry II and his sons Henry a nd Richard at the castle of Montmirial to enshrine the Treaty of Montm irial. Louis VII sided with Thomas Becket as a way to weaken Henry I I politically. In 1173, Louis also supported Henry II's rebellious so ns and in conjunction with Geoffrey moved against the Vexin. But the rivalry between Henry II's sons and Louis VII's own indecisiveness con tributed to the break up of the coalition (1173-74). by July of 1173 , Louis had withdrawn his forces back into France. An attack on Norma ndie in July of 1174 was made, but it was doomed to failure. Finally in 1177 the Pope intervened to bring the two Kings to terms at Vitry.

    His reign was a difficult and unfortunate one, from the point of viewo f royal territory and military power. Yet the royal authority made pro gress in the parts of France distant from the royal domains. More dire ct and more frequent connection was made with distant vassals, a resul t largely due to the alliance of the clergy with the crown. Louis VII thus reaped the reward for services rendered the church during the lea st successful portion of his reign.His greater accomplishments lie i n the development of agriculture, population, commerce, the building o f stone fortresses, as well as an intellectual renaissance. Considerin g the significant disparity of political leverage and financial resour ces between Louis VII and his Angevin rival, not to mention Henry II' s superior military skills, Louis VII should be credited with preservi ng the Capetian dynasty. During the last years of his reign, Louis gained a reputation for mildness and justice.

    On 26 August 1179, after returning from England to France, Louis suffe red a major stroke. Stricken with paralysis, he was to be succeeded b y his son by Adèle, Philip II Augustus and had him crowned at Reims i n 1179. King Louis VII himself was not able to be present at the cere mony. Louis VII died on September 18, 1180 and at least one source in dicates that his death occurred at the Abbey at Saint-Pont, Allier an d that he was interred in Saint Denis Basilica.
    Louis was succeeded by his son Philip II (Philip Augustus)
    NOTE
    GEDCOM created by TMG...
    Basic Life Information

    Louis VII, called the Younger or the Young (French: Louis le Jeune; 1120 - 18 September 1180), was King of France, the son and successor of Louis VI (hence his nickname). He ruled from 1137 until his death. He was a member of the House of Capet. His reign was dominated by feudal struggles (in particular with the Angevin family), and saw the beginning of the long feud between France and England. It also saw the beginning of construction on Notre-Dame de Paris and the disastrous Second Crusade.

    Marriages and Children

    Louis married three times. By Eleanor of Aquitaine, he had:

    Marie, married Henry I of Champagne
    Alix, married Theobald V of Blois

    By Constance of Castile:

    Marguerite of France (1158-97), married (1) Henry the Young King; (2) King Béla III of Hungary (1172-96)
    Alys (4 October 1160 - c. 1220), engaged to Richard I of England; she married William III Talvas, Count of Ponthieu

    By Adele of Champagne:

    Philip II Augustus (August 22, 1165 - 1223)
    Agnes of France (1171-1240), who was betrothed to Alexius II Comnenus (1180-83) but married (1) Andronicus I Comnenus (1183-85); (2) Theodore Branas (1204)

    Death

    Nearing the end of his life, Louis' third wife bore him a son and heir, Philip II Augustus. Louis had him crowned at Reims in 1179, in the Capetian tradition (Philip would in fact be the last King so crowned). Already stricken with paralysis, King Louis VII himself was not able to be present at the ceremony. He died on September 18, 1180 at the Abbey at Saint-Pont, Allier and is interred in Saint Denis Basilica
    wikipedia
    GIVN Louis VII "Der Dicke" Koenig
    SURN von Frankreich
    NSFX King of France
    AFN 8XJ2-7B
    DATE 9 SEP 2000
    TIME 13:15:39
    [howard.ged]

    Louis VII, called The Young (1121?-80), king of France (1137-80), son and successor of Louis VI. In the first year of his reign he married Eleanor of Aquitaine, daughter of William X, duke of Aquitaine. Louis soon aroused the opposition of Pope Innocent II because of his support of a rival to the papal candidate for the archbishopric of Bourges, and his lands were placed under papal interdict. Louis next fought a 2-year war and conquered Champagne in 1144.In 1147 he joined the unsuccessful Second Crusade as one of its two chief military leaders (the other was Conrad III of Germany). Louis returned to France two years later, and in 1152 his marriage to Eleanor was annulled; in the same year she married Henry of Anjou, later Henry II, king of England. Louis warred with Henry for the possession of Aquitaine but renounced all rights to the duchy in 1154, the year Henry became king of England. Between 1157 and 1180 Louis continued sporadic warfare against Henry, who held many of the French provinces. Louis was succeeded by his son Philip II (Philip Augustus).
    "Louis VII," Microsoft (R) Encarta. Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright (c) 1994 Funk & Wagnall's Corporation.
    [Kopi av ROYALS.FTW]

    Louis was succeded by his son Philip II (Philip Augustus)[Chambers Bio.] Louis VII reigned from 1137. Married to Eleanor of
    Aquitane, marriage annuled, she later married Henry II of England.
    [sawnson -at- butler.edu]: Expert historians who have an intimate
    knowledge of the source material often describe Alice as the daughter of
    Louis VII and Constance of Castile. (For example, W. L. Warren, Henry
    II, and John Baldwin, The Government of Philip Augustus.) Experts in
    medieval genealogy tend to describe her as the daughter of Louis VII
    and Adela of Champagne. (For example, Europaische Stammtafeln (1984
    ed) Table 11.) I'd be grateful to know if any readers of this list
    know of primary source material which might help resolve the question
    one way or another. Scott Swanson. DATE Date Unknown QUAY 0
    Person Source
    DATE Date Unknown QUAY 0
    Louis VII (born 1120, ruled 1137-80) was the eldest son of Louis VI.
    Shortly before his death, Louis VI arranged for his son's marriage to
    Eleanor of Aquitaine. By this marriage southwest France was added to
    the domains of the new French king. Unfortunately Louis, who was very
    religious and prone to be jealous, soon discovered that his beautiful
    queen was a capricious flirt.
    In 1147 Louis departed for the Holy Land on the Second Crusade,
    taking his queen with him. This Crusade was a miserable failure (see
    Crusades). After they returned, Louis had his marriage annulled in
    1152. Eleanor at once sent an embassy to Henry, count of Anjou and duke
    of Normandy, proposing marriage. Henry was overjoyed because the
    alliance transferred to him the great duchy of Guienne. Two years later
    Henry and Eleanor were crowned king and queen of England (see Henry,
    Kings of England, "Henry II"). France thus lost a rich territory to
    England, its greatest rival.


    ---------------------------------------------------------
    Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia
    Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 Compton's NewMedia, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    #Générale##Générale#Participa à la Croisade prêchée par Saint Bernard ,1147 - 1149, etsoutint le Pape Alexandre III contre Frédéric Barberousse. En 1152, il répudiaAliénor d'Aquitaine, qui, en épousant Henri II Plantagenet, apporta en dotl'Aquitaine au futur Roi d'Angleterre.

    source mariage : J.F. CAMPION ,http://perso.clu

    note couple :

    #Générale#Mariage annulé

    source mariage : J.F. CAMPION ,http://perso.clu

    source mariage : J.F. CAMPION ,http://perso.clu


    inhumation : 1180 à Melun (Abbaye Barbeaux) 77 Fra

    inhumation : en 1180 Julien 77590 Fo

    #Générale#Il est couronné roi de France le premier août 1137
    Louis The Younger, French Louis Le JeuneCapetian king of France who pursued a long rivalry, marked by recurrent warfare and continuous intrigue, with Henry II of England.
    In 1131 Louis was anointed as successor to his father, Louis VI, and in 1137 he becamethe sole ruler at his father's death. Louis married Eleanor, daughter of William X, duke ofAquitaine, in 1137, a few days before his effective rule began, and he thus temporarily extended the Capetian lands to the Pyrenees. Louis continued his father's pacification program by building the prestige of the kingship through an administrative government based on trustworthy men of humble origin and by consolidating his rule over his royal domains rather than by adding new acquisitions. From 1141 to 1143 he was involved ina fruitless conflict with Count Thibaut of Champagne and the papacy. But thereafter his relations with the popes were good; Alexander II, whom he supported against Frederick Barbarossa, took refuge in France. But the major threat to his reign came from Geoffrey, count of Anjou and, briefly, of Normandy, and Geoffrey's son Henry, who later (1154) became King Henry II of England as well as ruler of both Anjou and Normandy. After Louis repudiated his wife Eleanor for misconduct on March 21, 1152, she married Henry, who then took over control of Aquitaine. Ironically, this act was probably to Capetian advantage because Aquitaine might have drained the resources of Louis's kingdom while bringing him little revenue. After the death of Louis's second wife, he married Alix of Champagne, whose Carolingian blood brought added prestige to the monarchy (1160); their son became Philip II Augustus.
    Louis might have defeated Henry if he had made concerted attacks rather than weak assaults on Normandy in 1152. Anglo-Norman family disputes saved Louis's kingdom from severe incursions during the many conflicts that Louis had with Henry between 1152 and 1174. Louis was helped by the quarrel (1164–70) between Henry and Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and a revolt (1173–74) of Henry's sons. Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, who acted as regent in 1147–49 while Louis was away on the Second Crusade, is the primary historian for Louis's reign.

-- GEDCOM (INDI) --1 SUBM @S968259@

 Sources

  • Individual:
    - - 28 AUG 2010 - Date of Birth - http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=millind&h=105114081&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt
    - - 16 SEP 2014 - Date of Birth - He was succeeded by his son Louis (the Young), who was better suited to, and intended for, a monastic life rather than the throne. (bio by: Kristen Conrad)
    King Louis VII (1120 - 1180)*
    - - 28 AUG 2010 - Date of Death - http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=millind&h=105114081&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt
    - - 16 SEP 2014 - Date of Death - He was succeeded by his son Louis (the Young), who was better suited to, and intended for, a monastic life rather than the throne. (bio by: Kristen Conrad)
    King Louis VII (1120 - 1180)*
    - - 16 SEP 2014 - First Name - He was succeeded by his son Louis (the Young), who was better suited to, and intended for, a monastic life rather than the throne. (bio by: Kristen Conrad)
    King Louis VII (1120 - 1180)*
    - - 16 SEP 2014 - Last Name - He was succeeded by his son Louis (the Young), who was better suited to, and intended for, a monastic life rather than the throne. (bio by: Kristen Conrad)
    King Louis VII (1120 - 1180)*
    - - 16 SEP 2014 - Suffix - He was succeeded by his son Louis (the Young), who was better suited to, and intended for, a monastic life rather than the throne. (bio by: Kristen Conrad)
    King Louis VII (1120 - 1180)*
    - - 16 SEP 2014 - Gender - He was succeeded by his son Louis (the Young), who was better suited to, and intended for, a monastic life rather than the throne. (bio by: Kristen Conrad)
    King Louis VII (1120 - 1180)*
    - - 16 SEP 2014 - Occupation - He was succeeded by his son Louis (the Young), who was better suited to, and intended for, a monastic life rather than the throne. (bio by: Kristen Conrad)
    King Louis VII (1120 - 1180)*

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